The heating system in the one-story house can be mounted on various schemes. When choosing the optimal variant into account the project budget and availability of fuels.
Also features design elements of private residential building: area of the object used in the construction materials, the availability of storage space for the installation of the boiler equipment.
Let's see what rules should be followed when designing the heating system and on what actions should be abandoned in order to avoid problems with the heating in the future.
The content of the article:
- Requirements for individual heating
- Classification of heating systems
coolant circulation features
- The natural motion of the fluid
- Forced circulation system
One-pipe heating system
- Horizontal method for wiring
- Vertical option wiring
- Two-pipe heating system
- The upper and lower wiring circuit
- Types horizontal arrangement of the double pipe system
- Rules of drafting heating system
- What information is needed to masters?
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Requirements for individual heating
Thermal unit should be planned so that it matches the architectural design of the building. The location of all the functional elements should be as convenient as possible for the operation and carrying out routine maintenance work without violating the structural integrity of the house.
The basic requirements for modern heating systems:
- energy efficiency;
- easy installation and maintenance;
- high heat transfer performance;
- full / partial independence from the electricity.
Before, the most suitable must be selected to proceed to the design of heating and economical source of heat energy - the stove or fireplace, hot water, steam, air or electric heating.
And yet to be determined with the concept of pipework for heating single-storey Private homes, correctly calculate the power and objectively evaluate the load on the system, taking into account all features.
Individual heating system should create a comfortable microclimate inside the house during the winter, be cost-effective and reliable in operation
Properly installed distributing heating line makes it possible to organize a uniform heating of the air in all the rooms of a private house in a minimum amount of time.
Classification of heating systems
The one-story buildings, cottages, houses mounted autonomous heating system or dependent on external sources of supply. The first function with LPG, diesel, as well as solid fuel. Second - need to connect to the mains or gas mains.
Another difference between the heat supply options is the need for human intervention in the operation of the equipment.
with automatic control systems do not require around the clock monitoring or manual tuning. Maintain a comfortable temperature in buildings provide thermostats and temperature sensors.
These instruments are regularly controlled by the change of temperature indicators that allows the heating system to take into account all the factors that have a direct effect on the room temperature: solar heat radiation household appliances, heat from the lamps to illuminate etc.
heating systems are often mounted together with the boiler automatics. Its main task - to achieve the highest possible efficiency, but without departing from the scope of permissible parameters
Automation makes it possible to change the temperature in the house at different times of the day.
In the classification of heating systems take into account such features as:
- heat carrier type - air, water or steam, combined;
- type of fuel used - gas, electric, peat, wood, pellet, coal;
- method for transporting a working liquid - with natural and forced circulation;
- coolant movement stroke - passing and blind;
- connection method of boiler equipment - one-pipe and two-pipe arrangement;
- wiring diagram - vertical or horizontal arrangement of a dilution line, top or bottom, combined.
In apartment buildings dominated by the vertical wiring diagram, and in single-storey common horizontal. Combined methods of supplying heat are prevalent in high-rise buildings.
coolant circulation features
The private low-rise buildings to effectively install a heating system with a heat transfer fluid. For this purpose the tube is filled with antifreeze or ice-water.
The movement of working fluid heating circuit can be performed in a natural or forced mode. The heated water flows in the heat generator return piping, and then - to the radiators. This part of the circuit called a direct course.
After falling into the battery heat transfer fluid cools off and quickly sent to the boiler for heating. This period is called the return stroke. To speed up the transport of coolant in the system is mounted a circulation pump.
The natural motion of the fluid
The heating circuit make slant horizontal piping, thus creating conditions for movement of working fluid under gravity.
And also set the open expansion tank - a special tank for receiving excess water to provide a serviceable and safe operation of all components of engineering networks.
Water systems operate fully with the Oil, solid fuel, gas and electric boilers
Functioning heating systems with natural circulation due to the different densities of hot and cold fluid. According to the laws of physics hot water rushes up.
In closed loop cold streams inevitably displace heated, causing them to move in the opposite direction from the heat source. The moving fluid with kinetic potential energy passes through the battery, giving up heat. After returning to the boiler equipment cycle repeats.
Today, one-pipe heating system with radiators water is very popular among consumers. The coolant is water, but it is allowed and the use of non-freezing of the working fluid, which will prevent the destruction of the pipes in the winter season
To fully worked samotochnaya design, the boiler is set below the central axis of the main circuit. Typically, the heat generator is mounted in a recess floor, but sometimes in cellars, with the exception of gas appliances.
The supply pipe of the boiler in the vertical direction is raised to the maximum possible upper point. This creates more space in the closed loop hydraulic fluid acceleration.
The number of valves required in samotochnyh heating systems is minimized. Stringent requirements imposed on the diameter of the installed pipes - it should be at least 32 mm. Since in the circuit speed of movement of water is insignificant, in order to increase heating efficiency is mounted only large diameter tubes.
At the top open heat supply systems mounted an expansion tank. In closed, usually mounted automatic steam trap air
Independent heating system whose operating principle is based on the natural process of heat transfer fluid circulation, is the simplest. This home heating project is easy to implement in practice. However, this option is only suitable for small private buildings, as the heating circuit length is limited to 30 meters.
The main advantage of samotochnyh systems - complete independence from electric power. More details about the heating systems with natural coolant circulation read Further.
Forced circulation system
For individual buildings with a total area greater than 60 square meters. m. designing heating with forced transport of the working fluid. The closed loop set circulation pumpTo ensure rapid movement of hot coolant to the radiator and chilled - to the appliance.
Installation pipes in the system can be performed without deviation in the horizontal plane. Water moves due to the pressure difference indicators, which occurs in the plot line between direct and reverse motion of the liquid.
Availability pump device considerably increases the efficiency of the heating system and minimizes the fuel consumption required to maintain a comfortable room temperature in a private house
A significant drawback of the system of coercion - volatility. For continuous circulation of water in the circuit must be continuous pump operation, and its efficiency depends on the power supply.
In the event of a sudden power failure the equipment simply will not be able to pump the fluid. Therefore, experts recommend installing additional backup generators capable of providing a stable, trouble-free heating, even in unexpected situations.
Such circuits can be operated at a heating installation in buildings of any size. It is only necessary to select a circulation pump with appropriate power parameters and provide power.
One-pipe heating system
The house is set only one trunk line under the floor or on top of a series connection of batteries. This heating circuit is no allocation in the feed tube and back.
Along the perimeter of a single-storey building is mounted only one circular pipe with a diameter not less than 32 mm, which is conventionally divided in half. Extending from the heat source is called the half pitch, and the second part of the line - the return line. With welded or seamless tubes of small diameter in a loopback mounted radiators / convectors.
Organization of the heating system with natural circulation flow line involves installation with a gradient of 4-5 mm every 2 m
Single-pipe circuit comprises the following functional elements:
- the heating source (boiler);
- an expansion tank;
- elements distributing pipes.
The heated fluid flows alternately in radiators, each time giving some of its heat. After this has cooled back into the pot for the next heating cycle. In each battery heat is lost and the last element in the chain is the coldest in comparison with others.
There are several methods that allow you to optimize the performance of a single pipe system. It is possible to additionally set special thermostatic valves for heat exchangers, balancing valves with adjustable hydraulic resistance or compact ball valves. Such equipment helps to normalize the supply of heat to the batteries.
Mounted faucets make it possible to regulate the amount of heat coming in every single radiator
Another way - to increase the number of sections for each of the next radiator in the heating circuit. And you can install a circulation pump. The pumping device is connected at the end of the return - the place where the working fluid has the lowest temperature readings.
Pipe heating option is easy to install and commissioning. Heat losses are minimized, because absolutely all utilities are located inside the living rooms of private homes.
Such a circuit can be arranged as a system with horizontal motion and forced coolant or vertical heating network with natural, forced or combined movement the working fluid.
Also we recommend that you read our other material, which we reviewed in detail pipe heating systems for a private home.
Horizontal method for wiring
Mounting of the feed pipe in the horizontal plane is performed with the desired bias in the direction of movement of the heated water. In this case, all the batteries on the perimeter of the house should be set at the same level. For bleed air from the radiators using automatic bleed screw or air vents.
Majewski crane is a special device for removing the accumulated air from the battery. The shut-off valve is rotated until it is clearly heard hissing. When the mixture of gases is deleted, tap water will flow
The horizontal line may be installed in the floor of the structure itself, or mounted on it. To avoid heat loss, in the first case, be sure to insulate the pipe.
Vertical option wiring
In such a system transporting the heat transfer fluid provides a natural circulation mode, and further because the pump set is not necessary. Volatility - the main advantage of a vertical one-pipe heating system at home.
With this method, the wiring working fluid heated to a predetermined temperature, is moved upwardly through the riser, followed by distribution pipes supplied to the battery. Efficiency of vertically disposed pipe system achieved by setting the sloped line and installation of large diameter pipes.
Of course, a massive pipeline does not decorate the interior living rooms. But this apparent disadvantage can be avoided if the equipment installed in the circulation system.
Two-pipe heating system
The main difference between a two-pipe circuit heating of the house is the presence of a water supply pipe and another one - for her return. Wherein the first hot fluid enters at a second guided to the boiler already cooled coolant.
Each battery is serviced by both the supply and return riser. This makes it possible to regulate the amount of heat received by individual radiators. If we ignore the coolant in the cooling pipes, it appears that all the heating elements are supplied with the same liquid temperature.
It looks like a standard two-pipe heating system in which heating of the heat transfer fluid provides a turbofan gas boiler
Two-pipe heating circuit includes:
- heat source;
- expansion tank;
- valves and special equipment for venting.
From the boiler to the expansion tank is a hot water pipe. She then in the heating circuit is connected to a dilution line. In addition, the tank crashed into the overflow tube for the timely removal of excess coolant into the sewer system.
From the bottom of heat exchanger tubes located combined into one return line. On it cooled coolant is returned to the boiler. Return line strictly parallel to the upper paving pipes. He must go through all the rooms, which laid the hot water supply line.
Two-pipe system with duress are considered the most effective for the single-storey houses and cottages, but they can provide warmth and a large area of two-story buildings.
And these allow evenly and quickly heat the room and maintain a different temperature mode on the premises. In addition, the two-circuit execution allows to organize not only home heating, but also hot water.
Circulating pressure in the double pipe system is directly dependent on the height of installation of the heating elements
The closed heating system with circulation pump mounted in two variants - with horizontal and vertical wiring.
The first method is performed in one-storey homes with long piping. In such situations, the connection Radiator heating circuit with horizontal - the optimal solution.
In the second embodiment, the wiring riser is vertical in order to enable circuit even in multi-storey buildings. In such systems, air is not accumulated because the bubbles are formed instantly rise in the vertical direction, directly into the surge tank.
The upper and lower wiring circuit
At the bottom of the system wiring highway paving in the basement or cellar. And also allows the installation of pipes under the floor. Heat transfer fluid enters the heating equipment from the bottom up.
Removal of the gas mixture through special air line connected to the risers. In the event of unforeseen emergencies and reverse supply risers are equipped with special valves for the isolation.
To implement a scheme from the top a dilution line expansion tank is mounted at the highest point of the pipeline. In the same place and perform branching network.
Design overhead routing is not possible in private homes, where there is no attic
Types horizontal arrangement of the double pipe system
The most common variant of the heating of residential one-storey house - two-pipe heating system with horizontal.
To organize such a heating circuit, the following schemes:
- tee or other perimeter;
- collector, or radiation.
According to Scheme tee joined pipe tees, pipeline laid along the perimeter, connected in series to the devices. Heat transfer medium in the perimeter system flows from one battery to the other, several cooling down on the way.
The movement of the heated and the cooled coolant tee options are divided into forward and backward. In Scheme stall hot and chilled water moved in different directions. In passing the heated exhaust and coolant flows in one direction.
AT collector circuit from the main body of the system, a collector pipe held to each of the radiators, whereby the coolant flows into all devices simultaneously.
The principle of the device resembles the sun's rays emanating from the center is usually located heat flow distributor. The ray species routing coolant moves only in different directions.
Rules of drafting heating system
Properly drawn up a draft allows you to run the most efficient and versatile heating system.
It must operate smoothly in specific to a particular area of climatic conditions, where the one-storey house, be easy to operate.
Following the results of the energy audit, the calculation of annual savings and costs for heating the best option is chosen home heating system
Drawing up a quality project for heating a single-storey house and a precise calculation of system parameters is performed on a definite plan:
- The first step is to form a technical problem with all the requirements and components to the heating system.
- The second step - to collect information on a particular object. Professionals need to remove all the indicators that make up the heating circuit diagram.
- The next stage - the heat transfer calculations. To do this, you need to perform calculations and to choose the optimum heating circuit, which will correspond to the basic construction standards and customized.
- When all the calculations are completed, executed drawings.
- The last step - the design and commissioning of a project of the heating system to the customer.
The main objective of the design - to calculate the correct heating equipment area, select the appropriate diameter. And also determine the performance of the pumping devices, calculate the insertion locations of valves and system components. Therefore, it is expedient process to professionals.
If you really want to make calculations on their own, be sure to read the material, where we spent an example Heating oil for a private home.
What information is needed to masters?
Before begin installation work, should discuss with the experts all the nuances that show their vision of the heating system.
Masters must provide:
- complete information about the materials from which the building roof, floor covering, window construction;
- Plan one-storey house;
- drawings, in which marked places plumbing assemblies.
On the life of the heating system not only affects the quality of engineering design and skilled installation, but and selected materials, installed boilers, as well as rational use of heating elements.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The 3-D video circuit device and mounting arrangement of one-pipe heating system in a one-story house private:
Schematic representation of the two-pipe heating system made of polypropylene, the correct connection of the boiler equipment and installation of the radiators shown in the video:
In the video, a detailed understanding of heating a typical design and calculation of heat loss:
Modern heating systems are inherent attributes of the functioning of private houses, cottages and other objects building. Professionally executed design - the key to efficient, reliable and long-term trouble-free operation of individual heating system.
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