Today, an increasing number of gardeners are switching to natural farming, completely ignoring mineral fertilizer compounds. In this case, the use of green manure is considered the most significant way to improve the quality of the soil. But their thoughtless use for tomatoes can not only be useful, but also harm, reducing crop yields.
ContentsWhat is green manures and the rules of their planting
This is the name of certain species of annual plants, which, when sown on the site before planting or after harvesting crops, are possible to improve the composition and structure of the soil .
The root system creates tubules in the soil, which improves drainage. Roots become food for microorganisms, further activating their activities. Thick green manure protects the soil from drying out and winding.
Gardeners do not recommend growing tomatoes in a permanent place. The land in the beds is depleted, yields are decreasing. To improve the soil, it is recommended to plant siderats.
Sowing can be performed in early spring or autumn .It all depends on how you plan to grow the main crop - in unprotected soil or in greenhouse conditions.
If planting siderats is carried out in the fall, next year it is allowed to plant tomato seedlings on these beds again.
Advantages and disadvantages of
Some gardeners are afraid to use sideratami, fearing that the plants will clog all beds. But this opinion is erroneous, because such plants need a lot of time for full ripening of seeds. They do not have time to do this, as they fall under cleaning long before the formation of seed material - during their flowering period.
The main advantages of such plants include the following features:
- provide excellent protection against wind exposure;
- saturates the soil with useful elements , increases the percentage of the biological mass;
- retain water;
- loosen the soil, prevent erosion;
- prevent the growth of weed vegetation , which is quite difficult to overtake plants and break through to sunlight;
- part of the plant scares off the harmful parasites , protects crops from certain diseases. For example, mustard is advised to be planted with scab, and radish is great help from nematodes. Many sideratnye plants simply become bait for pests, distracting them from crops.
It should be noted that there are a number of negative points:
- is a group of perennial sideratov, which are able to germinate again and spoil your planting;
- do not overdo it with herbal fertilizers. If they form seeds or the stems become dense, it will be very difficult to get rid of sideratov. This is best done during flowering.
Plants for planting and maintenance of green manure for tomatoes
Most of the green manures are planted using a common technology. The soil in the beds should be cleared of weeds, slightly loosened and leveled. You can sow in rows, but many people prefer to do this in solid bulk .If you do not have the necessary skills, then evenness of sowing can be achieved by mixing the seed material with sawdust or sand in equal proportions.
It will be better if you roll the beds - this will provide an opportunity to achieve uniform shoots. To protect the beds from birds, they can be covered with non-woven materials until sprouts appear.
Combination of different siderativnye plants for tomato
There is no need to sow one plant throughout the garden. By combining herbal and cereal varieties, can have a complex effect on the soil. can be excellently fertilized.
As a rule, this is done using ready-made mixtures containing seeds:
- marigolds, etc.
Planting in shady areas
On such beds, siderats build up an excellent green mass, as they are actively drawn to the sunlight. Cutting off the stems, they can be easily transferred to tomato beds, using in the form of compost.
is best in the shade to plant vetch, phacelia, oily radish, mustard.
Important rules for growing
Planting green manure plants for tomato crops should be planted, following a number of requirements:
- should not plant tomato seedlings after fertilizer grass, which belongs to the same family as tomatoes;
- sowing should be carried out, as thick as possible ;
- "fertilizers" alternate annually;
- The aboveground part of the siderates is cut off before they start to mature .
The best green manure for tomatoes
As a rule, the following plants are preferred:
- vegetable peas - after it, a lot of phosphorus and nitrogen accumulate in the soil;
- fodder beans - excellent for heavy clay areas, considered to be a source of nitrogen;
- alfalfa sowing - has strong roots, the length of which reaches three meters, significantly increases the content of nitrogen and phosphorus in the soil composition, perfectly loosens the beds;
- Lupine - one of the best plants for depleted sandy areas;
- white mustard - drowns weeds, protects against wireworms;
- phacelia - suppresses weeds, the smell of its nectar attracts entomophages that destroy harmful parasites.
Unfortunately, the cultivation of green manure is an effective way, but it requires additional time and effort.
Fans of organic farming methods recommend biological products that can quickly and with good quality enrich the beds with useful components without planting green manure. food waste that does not contain meat residues may be the raw material for this. Add and cut grass, weeds, not yet having seeds, small twigs.
Recycled waste will allow you to save on the purchase of seeds and does not require much time to use.
This is how many gardeners maintain the fertility of the beds in the ground and in the greenhouse. It is only necessary to sow the plants and then close up their green mass into the soil. If you use these recommendations, you can independently enrich the beds under tomato seedlings with useful elements.