- №1. Wooden house
- Round logs
- Glued profiled beams
- House made of aerated concrete (gas block)
- House of foam blocks
- Cinder block house
- Polystyrene concrete for building a house
In the fairy-tale about the three pigs, the most important and always topical idea of the correctness of the choice of the building material for the house is raised. Fairy tale fairy tale, but many of us, like the heroes of the famous work, want to build a solid, reliable house with minimal effort. However, today it is quite possible to do this thanks to the development of construction technologies. Nevertheless, there are so many wall materials that the developer has to break his head decisively, deciding which material is better to build a house. Brick, aerated concrete, wood, sandwich panels - what is better, more reliable, durable and warmer?
The cost of building the walls of the house is up to 40% of the cost of all works, so it is so important to weigh the numerous pros and cons of each material in order to make the only correct decision. It is also necessary to take into account the seasonality of living in the house, the requirements for thermal insulation, the cost of the fuel used for heating, as well as the laboriousness of the work and the budget allotted for construction. There are a lot of materials for building a house today - finding the one that most closely matches the requests is not a problem.
№1. Wooden house
The most conservative and traditional material for building a house is a tree.Its undeniable advantages include:
- naturalness and environmental friendliness;
- low thermal conductivity;
- optimal microclimate inside the house;
- the opportunity to equip a simple foundation (columnar is suitable);
- excellent appearance and no need for additional finishing.
- high fire hazard, even in spite of the fact that today special impregnations are used in the production of timber;
- wood is sensitive to moisture and pests, this is also tried to fight, but without constant care the material will be permanently damaged;
- high price.
Under the wooden house means buildings made of round logs, a planed beam and a profiled glued beam. Due to the difference in processing technology, the properties of the houses built by their materials can be very different.
For the construction of houses, as a rule, use logs frompine, fir and spruce. They undergo multistage processing, incl. are subject to high-temperature drying. It looks like a solid house, like a real fortress, it's easy to breathe, but if you want to build a house from a log house, you should be ready for numerousfeatures of the material.
The main problem is shrinkage, which lasts about a year and is about 10 cm per floor. Shrinkage causes the appearance of cracks, which will need to be carefully sealed to prevent heat loss. In addition, in the first year it will not be possible to finish and install windows. According to the resistance to heat transfer, the tree, of course, bypasses the brick, but the house from the log house can not be called 100% energy efficient. There are several reasons, among them the cracks formed during shrinkage, and the insufficient thickness of the walls. From the logs it is impossible to build walls thicker than 20 cm (the thickness is changed at the seams - the thinnest place), and for most regions this is not enough. We will either have to increase the cost of heating, or use the house only in the summer, because to insulate wooden walls and hide the most beautiful natural material the hand does not rise. In addition, the tree requires constant care.
Despite a lot of minuses, houses from rounded logs continue to be actively erected, because they give a special home cosiness and, provided they are properly maintained, can stand long enough.
Glued profiled beams
Glued beam, while maintaining all the advantages of natural wood is devoid of its most obvious shortcomings. The material is made, as a rule, from coniferous species, usually spruce, less often - pines and larch. The finished product is obtained by longitudinal splicing of individual lamellas from solid wood. Fibers of neighboring fragments are located in different directions. Such a production technology makes it possible to obtainStrong material with predetermined properties. The profiled ends of such products facilitate the process of construction and allow to obtain a strong masonry.
To the mainadvantages of the materialinclude high strength, no shrinkage and cracks. Such walls do not require decoration either inside or outside, but since the maximum thickness of the timber is 30 cm, it is not possible to build a fully energy efficient house in any region. It is worth glued beam is more expensive than round logs.
№2. Brick house
Another classic and time-tested material for building a house is a brick. Despite the appearance of a mass of alternative materials, it remainsthe most popular materialfor the erection of low-rise private houses, and for that there are many reasons.
- high durability and strength;
- inertness to rodents, insects and mold;
- resistance to fire;
- the material passes air;
- brick makes it possible to realize a project of any complexity.
- the need to carefully prepare the foundation, as the brick is a heavy material, and the masonry is made in several rows;
- low thermal insulation properties;
- high labor intensity of work and low construction rate;
- A brick house costs more than construction from other materials.
For the erection of a 2- or 3-storey buildingenough brick strength M100 or M125, but the ground floor is better to build from the brick M150-M175. Also take into account the frost resistance of the brick, which is determined by the cycles of freezing and defrosting, which the material withstands without losing its basic properties. If for warm regions it is possible to use brick F15-30, then for the middle band it is better to take a material with frost resistance F50, and for the most severe regions - F100. After building the house, they give him some time to dry. Brick walls, as a rule, trim with a facing brick.
By filling the bricks are divided into:
- full-bodied- material for the erection of the foundation, bearing walls and partitions. These are more durable and frost-resistant products, of which the responsible elements are placed;
- hollowbrick is used for laying partitions and facing facades, but sometimes it is allowed to build walls of lightened buildings from them;
- porous ceramic brick- this is a large block, which is produced by a special technology with the addition of clay to the sawdust. The products are distinguished by numerous holes, so they are able to provide excellent thermal insulation. Often, the material is used to build warm houses in earthquake-prone areas, since in the blocks there are special holes for fitting the reinforcement.
For the erection of walls, only two types of bricks are used:
- ceramic (red);
- silicate (white).
Ideally, it is better to build from a ceramic brick plastic forming. It is made from quality clay by extrusion. Ceramic bricks of dry and semi-dry forming due to high accuracy of geometry are mainly used for cladding. Red brick differs durability, good sound insulation and strength.
Lime brickproduced on the basis of sand and lime, it is cheaper than ceramic, but more fragile, differs by a small variety, lower thermal insulation and low moisture resistance.
No. 3. Houses of cellular concrete
Lightweight concrete blocks are the most promising material for building a house from all existing at the moment. Of all the stone materials, cellular concrete has the best thermal insulation performance. Due to the fact that the block is large (replaces 17-20 single bricks), the erection of buildings is carried out quickly. In terms of strength and durability, the material is almost as good as brick. To cellular concrete includeaerated concrete, foam concrete, expanded clay concrete and polystyrene concrete, but the first two became the most widespread in private construction.
House made of aerated concrete (gas block)
Aerated concrete is produced on the basis of cement and sand with the addition of gassing agents, and sometimes lime, gypsum and ash. After the addition of water, a gassing reaction passes, and numerous interconnected pores are formed in mass. It is better to give preference to autoclave production, which involves drying not under natural conditions, but under the influence of steam. After cutting, the standard blocks are obtained, which are used for the erection of bearing walls.
- high construction speed is ensured by the large size of the blocks and their relatively small weight;
- Low thermal conductivity, due to the porous structure;
- the material "breathes approaching the steam and air permeability to the tree;
- high compressive strength;
- resistance to fire, micro-organisms and pests;
- ecological compatibility;
- low price.
- high water absorption, which can reach 35%. Because of this, strength, durability and heat-insulating qualities are reduced. With reliable waterproofing, high-quality ventilation, a good drainage system and moisture-proof lining, this problem can be minimized;
- low bending strength, so if improperly installed over time, cracks may appear on the walls;
- problems with fasteners, or rather features. For fixing suitable universal or screw dowels, which are easy to find on sale. Light objects can be safely hung on ordinary nails.
For the erection of a private low-rise buildingsuitable blocks of the brandD400. Despite the drawbacks, aerated concrete is one of the most popular and suitable materials for building a private house, which is used for permanent residence.
House of foam blocks
Foam concrete in many properties is similar to aerated concrete, but it is somewhat cheaper because of the features of production. The raw materials are still the same - sand, cement, water and gasifier. The latter is a foam based on surfactants.
- good heat and sound insulation qualities;
- small weight and convenience in work, high speed of building a house;
- high compression density;
- resistance to fire, mold, rodents;
- Low cost (approximately 25% lower than for aerated concrete).
- small bending strength. The strength of the material grows with time, so the freshly prepared blocks should not be used - from the production date must pass at least 28 days;
- a set of strengths and explains the small shrinkage of the house (2-4 mm per running meter);
- not always an ideal geometry.
In private construction you can usefoam block of brandD600-D700.
Cinder block house
Slag-concrete is produced on the basis of cement, clay, lime or gypsum with the addition of plasticizing additives, and the filler is brick bricks, granite sifting, expanded clay, gravel, ash, pergolite, etc.
- small weight at large sizes simplifies and speeds up installation;
- fire resistance, resistance to rodents and mold;
- sufficient strength and durability;
- low price.
- the need for serious warming;
- nonideal geometry of blocks;
- difficulties in laying communications and fixing heavy objects on the walls;
- not always high ecological compatibility.
Polystyrene concrete for building a house
The material is produced on the basis of cement, sand and polystyrene beads. Polystyrene concrete was not widely used, but it is still possible to consider it as an alternative.
- low cost;
- simplicity of installation and processing;
- excellent heat and sound insulation qualities;
- low load on the foundation;
- high durability;
- crack resistance.
- withstands a small number of cycles of freezing / defrosting, which limits the use of the material in cold regions;
- problems with fasteners, and doors with windows in a couple of years begin to loosen up. The reason lies in polystyrene balls, which strive to fall out, which greatly reduces the strength of the blocks;
- low vapor permeability.
The properties of the material make it ideal for use as a heater, rather than a building material.
№4. Frame house
Fashion for the construction of frame houses came to us from abroad. They are also calledframe-shield, Canadian and houses of sandwich panels. Buildings are assembled on the principle of a designer from ready-made typical factory elements, consisting of a wooden frame, covered with plywood or boards, between which is a heater (usually used mineral wool or expanded polystyrene).
Frame houses repeat many advantages of wood, but are built quickly and cost cheap. In terms of quality and durability, they show themselves perfectly, if, of course, quality materials were used and the technology was fully observed.
- high thermal insulation qualities, as the panels use the most effective heaters;
- high speed of erection, because the house is assembled from prefabricated panels of typical sizes;
- Finish can be started immediately after the construction is finished - wait for the drying of the mortar or shrinkage is unnecessary;
- panels are treated to protect them from mold and pests;
- low weight and low load on the foundation;
- relatively low cost.
- fire danger, like a wooden house;
- frame houses are characterized by a certain monotony, because they are built from typical elements;
- high labor intensity of finish finishing, and with engineering systems it is necessary to tinker, after all wiring, for example, must be laid on top of walls - in combustible structures it is forbidden to equip its inside;
- the need to strictly comply with construction technology. This is important for any home, but in the panel-skeleton mistakes it will be difficult to fix;
- not the highest strength, so the calculation of loads must be carried out especially carefully;
- low sound insulation;
- You can hang items only on the supporting frame;
- polystyrene - a good environment for the life of rodents.
Low cost and high speed of construction made frame houses are very popular, so build whole cottage villages.
№5. Houses made of reinforced concrete panels
Another option for rapid construction is the technology of erecting houses from finished factory reinforced concrete panels. A low-rise house can be built in a few days! The technology resembles the one that was so actively used in the Soviet Union for the rapid erection of millions of square meters of housing.
- high speed of construction, because the panels are manufactured in the factory;
- the ability to immediately start finishing work;
- ideal geometry;
- high strength and durability;
- low price;
- fire safety;
- panels are already insulated;
- there is no shrinkage.
- a solid foundation is needed;
- a small number of offers on the market (few companies cast slabs for the created project - usually elements of typical sizes are manufactured);
- such a house "does not breathe
- concrete poorly holds heat.
When it is necessary to quickly build a reliable and durable house of decent size, then this is one of the best options, especially that today it is possible to cast panels of strictly necessary shapes and sizes in order to erect a building on an individual project.
Choosing the material for building a house, it is important to take into account the climate, soil type, future heating system, and many other factors. But even the most high-quality building materials can be disappointed in violation of construction technology or incorrectly laid foundation, so these points should be given no less importance.