- General rules and technology of waterproofing
- Waterproofing rules
- Preparation and laying of horizontal waterproofing
- Drainage system
- Bituminous waterproofing
- Roll waterproofing (roofing paper)
- Plastered waterproofing
- Waterproofing with liquid rubber
- Screen waterproofing
General rules and technology of waterproofing
Creating a strong foundation is an important task in the construction of any house, because a reliable foundation will be borne by a structure that will probably serve more than one generation of people. To make this possible, it is necessary to approach very carefully the protection of the foundation against the penetration of moisture, that is,to conduct a thorough waterproofingaccording to all construction rules and preferably with the use of modern building materials.
Qualitatively carried out waterproofing will create conditions for the durability of the structure, creating a favorable microclimate, which will be dry and warm. This will make staying in the house comfortable and save a lot of money on heating. To carry out works on protection from moisture by own forces will be quite real. To do this, you need to know the basic rules and technological nuances of carrying out such work.
The main foundation of the house, which will keep the entire structure of the building on itself, requires an attentive approach to the calculation and conduct of all stages of work. For successful waterproofing, knowledge of the processes occurring in the ground and in the concrete itself is required. Knowledge of all the properties and capabilities of other building materials that will be used in the conduct of hydroprotection will be necessary for independent work.
- Any basement of the structure is waterproofed from underground groundwater and surface water (sediments). In the first case it is necessary to take into account the depth of occurrence and the seasonal rise of groundwater. If the level of groundwater is higher than the basement, then in addition to the waterproofing, a drainage system of pipes should be built, which will remove excess moisture from the building. A proper and well-made drainage system will efficiently drain water andwill lower the level of moisture, as well as hydrostatic pressure on the foundation. This is very important, since one waterproofing of the base of the house can not provide full protection in this case. In the case of protection from precipitation, a blind is constructed, which protects the building from external moisture in the form of rain and other precipitation.
- The next point iscomposition of water, which will be in the ground. There are so-called aggressive waters, which have a greater destructive effect on the foundation. Therefore, you should carefully approach this issue and choose the appropriate building material, which has additional resistance to an aggressive environment.
- According to the existing modern technology should be not only waterproofing the basic structure of the basement, but also the basement walls and floor, as well as the plinth. The moisture protection layer should be continuous throughout the perimeter of the surface, without ruptures. From the outside and in places where there is an intensive hydrostatic head, it is necessary to carry out a double ortriple waterproofing. That is, create several layers for greater efficiency.
Types and methods of waterproofing
There are two methods of waterproofing the foundation:antifiltration and anticorrosive. In the first case, to conduct an independent waterproofing, that is, to do everything yourself, it does not work out, as for its arrangement requires professionals of high class who have experience and will do everything correctly.
In most cases, this protection is not required, so it is better to use the second method for waterproofing with your own hands -anti-corrosion waterproofing. This method is used in most cases, for houses, baths, garages and other buildings. In turn, anti-corrosion protection is divided into two types - horizontal and vertical hydrosolation. Both types will be considered in more detail below.
This type of waterproofing is important in the process of protecting from moisture any small structure. Whether it's a sauna, a cottage, a cottage and other similar building construction. It is often used in a monolithic (continuous) or ribbon foundation, where it is produced in two places.
The first is below the floor level of the basement in order to prevent the penetration of moisture from the ground. It is carried out at the level of 15-20 centimeters of the upper level of the floor surface of the basement.
The second is the place where the foundation joins the wall. It is done in order toprevent penetration of moisturein the wall and, accordingly, to prevent its destruction. Also horizontal waterproofing is used in the plinth.
Preparation and laying of horizontal waterproofing
Laying horizontal waterproofing begins at the very beginning of the construction of the house. Once the excavation for the foundation was dug, which implies the presence of a basement, waterproofing begins. At the bottom of the foundation pita layer of clay is pouredabout 20-30 centimeters.
You can use sand, but the first option is better, since clay prevents moisture penetration. The layer is well tamped and prepared for pouring the next concrete layer. Next, a layer of concrete 5-7 centimeters thick is made in order to create a waterproofing layer of roofing material and bitumen mastic. Before laying the waterproofing on the concrete surface should be given a fresh layer of concrete to settle.
This will take about 10-15 days to completely solidify and adapt to the surrounding conditions. Further, the concrete surface is covered with bituminous mastic throughout the entire surface area and a layer of roofing material is then laid. This is repeated again, that is, a second layer of bitumen mastic and roofing material is made. Then the second layer of concrete of the same thickness is poured (5-7 centimeters).
After laying the last layer of concrete, it should be lightened. This process is carried out in this way - after the concrete has been poured it is necessary to wait about 3 hours and fill a layer of pure cement (1-2 centimeters) on a fresh concrete surface. Cement must be sieved through a fine sieve. Then the layer of cement should be leveled and after it gets wet and absorbed, sometimes wet with water, as it does when creating a concrete screed.
For places where high humidity, even multi-layer waterproofing will not prevent from the gradual penetration of moisture into the house. Usually this happens in wetlands and where precipitation falls regularly. Totake the extra waga drainage system should be constructed. This is a system of pipes that is built in such a way as to remove excess moisture from the site with the house and thereby secure the home from destruction.
Before the construction of the drainage system, it is necessary to find out the level of groundwater and the average amount of precipitation falling in a year. To implement this system, you should dig a trench along the entire perimeter of the object (houses, cottages, baths). The distance from the trench to the object should be at least 0.7 meters. The width of the ditch will be 30-40 centimeters, and the depth depends on the moisture level, that is, at the depth where the water mirror is formed.
It is very important that the trench is located under a slope to the place of concentration of moisture (a well or a sinkhole). Slope should be about 1 centimeter per running meter of pipes. The drainage system can be completed if necessary after the completion of the house.
From the title it can be seen that this kind of waterproofing is used on vertical surfaces, that is, the walls of the foundation. Contains many ways to waterproof the surface, thanks to different types of suitable materials, which are used to protect the foundation from moisture. Vertical waterproofing can be painting, overlaying or mixed.
For example, the surface coating with liquid bitumen refers to the painting method, and the protection by ruberoid can be attributed to the pasting method. Combining different options will create a more reliable and effective protection from penetrating from the ground and together with the precipitation of moisture. Let's consider each kind of vertical waterproofing separately.
This method is the easiest to implement and the least expensive. DL of work is used bitumen resin, which is easy to buy in stores with a construction focus. There are cold and hotbituminous mastic. In the first case, it is not necessary to prepare the mixture, since it is sold in ready-made form, so it can be used immediately. When hot method it is required to purchase briquettes with hardened resin and to prepare bitumen mastic by means of additional means.
This is the cheapest way to waterproof the foundation. In order to prepare bituminous mastic by a hot method, the raw material itself - resin in briquettes and waste oil in proportions of 70% (bitumen) and 30% (waste oil) - will be needed. Also, a capacity is required in which the bituminous mass will be heated. After the mixture boils and stops bubbling, you can begin to work on the surface of the foundation of the house.
It is necessary to smear from the very foundation of the foundation and above the boundary of the soil by 20-25 centimeters. Apply a few layers, so that the total thickness of the protective coating is about 5 centimeters. Bitumen mastic penetrates well into all cracks and joints, sealing them. Its service life is 5 years, which is a short period. Then it starts to crack and let water pass into the concrete. To significantly extend the life of the protective layer, it is recommended to use bitumen-polymer mastics.
Roll waterproofing (roofing paper)
This type of protection is used as an additional barrier, preventing penetration of moisture into the foundation. Roll waterproofing is carried out on top of the bituminous layer to improve protection from groundwater. Under the roll waterproofing is understoodapplication of ruberoid, which has a roll form and is a kind of cloth. Also this material is called a technoelast and isoelast.
The coating process is as follows: a roofing material is applied to the layer of bitumen mastic, which is preheated with a special burner. As soon as the surface of the roofing material has heated up and has accepted the condition ready for the foundation sticker, the lining and fixing of the roll material to the surface requires waterproofing. The joints of the edges of the roofing material are overlapped by about 20 centimeters and are processed by a burner. The positive moment of using a roll (roofing felt) waterproofing is its low cost and availability.
It should also highlight the durability, which has an indicator of 50 years. This is a very impressive time and in combination with bituminous hydrosolation will create effective protection against groundwater and precipitation. The only drawback is that it will be very difficult to carry out an independent laying of the roofing material, so you need the help of another person.
From the name it becomes clear that with this waterproofing a special putty is applied, which is applied to the foundation and thereby creates a protective layer from moisture. Plastered waterproofing is used in conjunction with other types of protection, as the effectiveness of one plaster is not high. It is also used foralignment of foundation walls, I form additional protection.
To create a water-repellent property, special substances are added to the plaster, which create the desired protective effect. Putty put in the usual way, as in other works on plastering. In this case, a shpatlevochnaya grid is used, which is fastened with dowels to the foundation wall.
Of the advantages of plastering waterproofing can be distinguished by a low cost of materials and a fairly simple process of carrying out works, with which to cope and beginner. Cons also present - it's low water resistance, the possibility of cracks and a service life of about 15 years.
Waterproofing with liquid rubber
Modern type of waterproofing, which does not require special skills in the work oncreating a protective layerand perfect for self-implementation. Liquid rubber is evenly sprayed on the surface of the foundation and creates an effective protective layer, which will perfectly preserve the foundation from moisture from the ground.
Before the application of liquid rubber, the surface is carefully ground, and then one of the two types of material is to be "elastomix" or "elastopase". In the first case, after the application of rubber on the surface of the foundation, there is a rapid solidification of the material (about 2 hours). When the package with liquid rubber "elastomix" is opened, further storage of the substance is impossible. Apply the material in one coat. "Elastopaz" is slightly cheaper than the previous material, but applied in two layers. This type of rubber is to be stored, even after opening the package, so it is quite convenient when used by construction teams. Rubber can be applied with a spray, if any, or in a simple way, such as a brush or roller.
The advantages of liquid rubber is the durability of the applied layer, excellent resistance to moisture and ease of application. The downside is the comparative high cost of the material. Also, when using a manual application with a roller or brush, this is a rather long process. It is better to use a nebulizer.
With screen waterproofing, bentonite mats are used, whichclay filledand create an excellent protection against pressurized and aggressive groundwater. This type of waterproofing is a modern analogue of the "clay castle which is a layer of compacted clay, which prevents water from seeping into the foundation. It is the most simple and affordable way of waterproofing. It was used even before the appearance of modern building materials by our ancestors. Screen clay mats are attached to the wall of the basement by means of a special pistol with dowels. This method is used more often for non-residential buildings or in combination with other types of waterproofing.