- Variants and features of installation of heating of a wooden house
- Heat carrier in the heating system of a private house
- Schemes and installation of heating of wooden houses
- Important nuances of heating in a wooden house
- Remember shrinkage of walls, insulation of pipes, arrangement of chimney and boiler room
Eco-friendly and beautiful houses from logs or beams are becoming increasingly popular due to their accessibility, speed of erection and the ability to form a unique microclimate. Such a home will provide coolness in the summer and warmly in winter, if during the design of the heating system, the shrinkage of the house has been correctly taken into account.
Variants and features of installation of heating of a wooden house
Quality heating in a private house can be based on different types of sources of thermal energy, but must take into account the specifics wood, especially its tendency to crack at high temperatures, abrupt absorption and return of moisture, deformation at accelerated shrinkage. As a heat generator can act:
- classical or bio fireplace;
- gas or electric convectors;
- heat pump or gun.
Some options are suitable only for small buildings, others consume a lot of energy resources, others require constant control and manual fuel addition, the fourth are distinguished by the high price and complexity in installation. For houses ranging from 80-100 square meters. The optimal output will be the equipment of a separate boiler house with the installation of a boiler, using a pipe wiring, metal chimney and aluminum or bimetallic radiators, characterized by increased heat transfer. If the house has a gas pipeline or there is an opportunity to connect to a nearby highway, it is best Install gas heating equipment, which is characterized by economy, durability and high productivity.
It is important to know that for the legalization of gas heating it is necessary to pass the coordination procedures in Gaztekhnadzor. If there is no desire to clutter the interior with sectional heaters or panels, you can use the system "Warm floors" or "a warm plinth which will build a thermal veil along the walls and will not let into the room a cold air. But no matter what heating algorithm has been implemented, it is absolutely necessary to take care of the quality thermal insulation of walls and roofing. Then the heat will stay in the rooms for a long time, and the energy consumption will decrease to the minimum possible.
Heat insulation of heating pipes
When laying communications, it is necessary to avoid damage to the elements of the load-bearing structures, so as not to disturb the uniformity of the distribution of loads of walls, ceilings and roof. It is also necessary to avoid direct contacts of heavily heated and condensed pipes with wooden surfaces. For this, the insulation of both the heating communications and the water supply is carried out. This simple action helps prevent over-drying or unnecessary moistening of the wood.
Heat carrier in the heating system of a private house
The most demanded is the hydraulic heating system, which is characterized by efficiency, ease of maintenance and a long operating life. The liquid coolant, circulating along the contour from the pipes, brings heat to the heating devices and returns to the boiler for heating. As the working environment of heating, water is most often used. But such a coolant is not suitable for houses that are used as temporary suburban housing for weekends or holidays. When leaving, the heat generator must be switched off. To prevent frost, the water does not freeze and destroy pipes and radiators, it will be necessary to empty and fill the system regularly. This is not only inconvenient and takes a lot of time, which could be spent on heating the cooled rooms, but also harmful for the equipment. Fresh water is rich in salts and oxygen, which are the main sources of corrosion and solid deposits on the walls of pipes and a heat exchanger.
An exit from a situation becomes application as a coolant of nontoxic antifreeze on the basis ofpropylene glycol, which retains its properties under strong cooling. This working environment is designed to serve up to 10 heating seasons, which fully justifies the initial costs. It is not necessary to fill the pipes with pure antifreeze, it is sufficient to use its mixture with water. The proportions of the composition are determined by the real climatic conditions and the maximum winter temperature:
- up to -20C (65% water, 35% antifreeze);
- up to -25C (60% water, 40% antifreeze);
- up to -30C (55% water, 45% antifreeze);
- up to -35C (50% water, 50% antifreeze).
If the mixture for the heating system contains 55-70% antifreeze, the liquid does not freeze at temperatures below -45-65C, which is more than enough even for the northern regions.
The main disadvantages of antifreeze coolant should be attributedits reduced heat capacity compared to water (by 15%), the ability to expand, increased viscosity, fluidity and aggressiveness to rubber, because of which all plug-in connections must be sealed by special resistant gaskets. In addition, it is necessary to use boiler equipment, which technically provides for the use antifreeze solution, more powerful batteries, and give up some types of polymer and galvanized pipes. At the stage of heating design in a private house, all these moments are easily solved and allow to get a ready-to-use heating system.
Schemes and installation of heating of wooden houses
Heating systems can be with natural (gravity) or forced circulation of the working medium. In the first case, the laws of gravitation and the temperature difference between the heated and cooled coolant are taken into account. In the second - the liquid moves due to the pressure, pumped by a special circulating pump. For the delivery of heat to heating appliances, schemes with single-pipe or two-pipe wiring are used.
Single-pipe heating system scheme
To better understand the effectiveness and principle of worksingle-pipe heating system, consider its installation on the example of a wooden house in several floors. At once we will specify that the presence of a single circuit provides for the rise of hot water to the highest point of the system due to the lower density and mass in comparison with the cooled liquid. This provides an initial impulse for the drift. Moving along the main line, the coolant passes through the heating devices, giving each part of the stored heat. Immediately noticeably uneven distribution of thermal energy between the upper and lower floors. For a small one-story wooden house, this difference is insignificant, but for spacious and tall buildings is of key importance. Align the temperature indicators will increase the number of sections on the radiators far from the boiler.
In order for the cooled working medium to gravitate back into the heat exchanger for heating, the heat generator must be placed below the level of the radiators. The use of a circulating pump makes it possible to level this requirement and makes heating in a private house much more efficient due to the accelerated movement of the working environment.
In a simplified form, the installation of a single-pipe heating system can be described as follows:
- installation of the boiler;
- Expansion tank and radiator installation;
- laying of a pipe main;
- installation of the circulation pump (if necessary);
- connection of communications to devices;
- installation of radiator valves.
To improve the performance of single-tube heating, special jumpers are used - bypasses, allowing redirection and redistribution of the flow of coolant over the riser.
Two-pipe heating system
Two-pipe heating systemmuch more efficient due to the simultaneous receipt of heated coolant in the radiators on a separate highway. Passing through the sections of one heater, the working medium immediately enters the return flow and returns to the boiler.
In addition to uniform heating of all radiators, another important advantage of two-pipe heating is its variability. It is easy to add new heating appliances and extend the lines in the right direction. Thus, completing the house, there is no need to replace the entire heating system.
Important nuances of heating in a wooden house
Compensator bellows for heating system
As already mentioned, the main features of the installation of the heating system are associated with the use of wood as the main building material of the house. Even a well-dried bar contains a certain amount of moisture and eventually dries up and is susceptible to partial deformation. On the scale of a single structural element, such changes can be considered insignificant. But taking into account the large areas of wall, floor and ceiling surfaces, the shifts become critical and can amount to tens of centimeters. The use of standard communications and rigid fastenings will lead to tearing (breaks) of pipes, destruction of intertube connections and insulation, damage to equipment. That is why on the main highways special compensators are installed, which are equipped with corrugated surface, are resistant to dynamic loads and have the ability to contract and stretch. Sliding fasteners will ensure the freedom of moving the pipes. Outdoor pipe installation often violates the overall aesthetic integrity of the wooden interior, so it is advisable to give preference to the hidden laying of communications.
Pipes are laid under the floor, in the interstorey floors, behind the false walls. It is important to accurately determine in advance the location of the pipe wiring. Specialists strongly recommend the use of collectors and equip communications in such a way that in the interfloor and under the floor there is not a single joint. This leads to a slight increase in the construction budget, but completely eliminates the risk of leaks in a place inaccessible for operational repair.As the material of the mains for the heat carrier, high-quality pipes made of cross-linked polyethylene or polypropylene are used, which are designed for trouble-free operation up to 50 years.
To equip falshsten, which will decorate communications, do not use soft heaters, unable to keep their own form. It is best to use special slabs with a perfectly flat coating from the glass mesh. They are easily attached to each other due to the presence of the connection "spike groove".
If there is a bearing beam or wall in the way of communication laying, it is necessary to make an obvi- ous turn of the pipe and in no case to trowel the wood, reducing the structural strength of the building. When laying communications under the floor, it is allowed to make holes in the lags. If there is a desire to organize a system of warm floors, you can not use a monolithic concrete screed. There is a convenient Finnish technology with the installation of communications in a dry screed on the basis of several layers of plasterboard or cement chipboard. Tile glue is used to fill the voids.
Remember shrinkage of walls, insulation of pipes, arrangement of chimney and boiler room
Shrinkage of a wooden structure is a natural process of shrinking and contracting walls by evaporation of moisture from the pores of wood. The intensity of this process depends on the type of material used. The least shrinkage is given to houses made of laminated veneer lumber and chamber drying bars. But such materials are more expensive. The most commonly used are affordable logs and natural moisture bars that produce significant shrinkage. Before installing the heating in a private house, it is advisable to give it a stand for 8-12 months. If this is not possible, the pipes are assembled using compensators and sliding fasteners.
The wood is equally adversely affected by strong thermal impact and moisture in the form of condensate on the pipes, which lead to cracking, deformation, the appearance of mold and rot. The most economical and correct way to eliminate these problems will be the thermal insulation of the mains with special tubular material.
The chimney can be very hot during the operation of the heat generator, which carries significant risks of wood burning. Therefore, it is necessary to use certified chimneys made of refractory materials with thermal insulation. Optimal option is a separately standing brick pipe with its own foundation, which rises above the house to a height of 2 meters. This design provides excellent traction, effectively draws away the combustion products and reliably protects the wooden house from the temperature effect.
Installation of a gas boiler must be carried out on a fireproof floor or wall basis. If a solid fuel heat generator is used as a heat source, care should be taken about a full-fledged boiler house, in which all horizontal and vertical surface.