Basics of the device of electric water heaters
With hot water, there are often problems, and it is so necessary in every family, especially in winter. Let's look at the construction of a water heater powered by electricity. This will help make the right choice when buying and understand what is wrong with it, if the water has become a bad heat.
- 1Storage water heater
2Flowing water heater
- 2.1Video: choose a storage tank type
Storage water heater
To begin with, we note that the water heater can be a flow and storage type. The storage water heater is the simplest. It is a large thermally insulated tank, at the bottom of which is installed a teng. Banks come in different volumes. The tan assembly consists of the antenna itself and a thermostatic device through which the tan is connected to the network. There is also a magnesium anode, which significantly reduces scale formation. Let's describe how the water heater of the storage type works.
- Cold water from the water supply system is fed to the bottom of the storage tank through a branch pipe with a dissector and heated by a tenon.
- The water heated up below rises.
- When the water temperature reaches the temperature set by the thermostat, the electrical circuit is opened and no heating occurs. At this time, all the water in the tank is hot.
- The water is drawn through a tube, the end of which is located at the top of the storage tank.
- When we start using hot water, it is gradually replaced by the cold coming from below. The thermostat operates to lower the temperature and again the heating starts.
To prevent the tank from remaining completely empty, when there is no water in the water supply, a check valve is provided at the inlet. Drain completely the water from the storage tank through this valve. Sometimes a tee with a tap is installed to make it easier to drain.
|Tank capacity, l||Number of consumers in the apartment, private house|
|Goals of using hot water||1||2-3||4-5|
|Washing dishes, hands||5||15||30|
|Shower + hands + dishes||50||80-100||120-150|
|Taking a bath||100||120-200||250-300|
Any electric heater located in the water has one problem - scaling. Once in 1 to 2 years (depending on the hardness of the water), the water heater of the storage type must necessarily be cleaned of scale. Even a magnesium anode can not prevent its formation completely. Scale has very low thermal conductivity. If it surrounds the tan, it overheats, and the water at the top remains cold. In addition, cracks can form at the base of the ten, and the storage tank begins to flow.
Flowing water heater
Electric water heater of flow type consumes more energy than storage water. The device of the water heater is more complicated, however, it can considerably heat up the water, it takes up less space and is more convenient in the household plan, if you compare it with the storage one.
The water in them heats up very quickly, leaking through the tube. It flows cold, but it flows already hot, it does not stagnate anywhere and can be suitable for cooking. Usually the heating temperature reaches 57 ° C. The heating element can be a spiral or a ten. The spiral is recommended to be chosen in areas with very hard water, because they do not form scale on them. However, the spiral should be protected against dry running, in the event of air bubbles.
There are two types of instantaneous water heaters:
- pressure closed type;
- Non-pressure open type.
The main difference from the point of view of the consumer is that the pressure heaters can supply several points with hot water at the same time. If you choose a non-pressure type, you can only turn on the hot water at a certain time in one place.
Water heaters of high power (from 10-12 kW) require connection to a three-phase network. If you have an old wiring, then it is dangerous to connect powerful devices to it. First, it is necessary to replace electrocommunications, ensure reliable supply of electricity, and then already engage in installing an electric water heater.
|Device power, kW||What is the purpose of hot water?|
|4-6||my dishes, hands, another minor expense|
|6-8||take a shower|
|10-14||Shower + tableware + other small expenses|
|15-20||take a bath, completely provide hot water to a private house|
The water heater can be operated hydraulically or electronically. With hydraulic control, the temperature changes by changing the flow rate of water, the power is changed manually. Electronic systems are equipped with a thermostat. It determines the temperature of the incoming stream and the pressure of water. Depending on this, the heating power is set.
The main advantage of flow heaters is that they can give you hot water, how much you want (as long as there is water in the running water, of course). In addition, they occupy significantly less space than the storage tank. As for electricity consumption, with flow-type devices, one should be more economical and do not forget that every minute without the use of an open tap will cost a pretty penny.
You will be interested: how to clean the water heater from scale