Plum is one of the most popular fruit trees, known to summer residents of almost all regions of Russia.
This stone fruit has a huge variety variety and is the leader in the number of species among all fruit trees. Yellow, red, blue, large or smaller plum, it pleases with its rich crops, attracting more and more people who want to plant such a tree on their land.
There are effective ways to propagate the independently and to grow an excellent crop on this tree. Plum is very susceptible to reproduction: it is easily rooted, gives rise to shoots, it has quite high adaptive properties.
Consider artificial( grafting, grafting) and natural( root shoots, seeds) propagation of plums.
Table of contents
- Reproduction of green cuttings
- How to propagate the root growth?
- Grow a seed plum? Maybe!
- Grafting as a way of preserving the
- variety species. Planting in autumn, spring or summer: seasonal features
Propagation by green cuttings
This method of reproduction of plum is the most common for dark varieties .
The soil is prepared in advance for planting a green cutting - a mixture of peat and sand will create an optimal microclimate, before direct planting, good soil moisture and fertilizer( for example, superphosphate - 1 tsp. Per 10 l of water) is necessary.
On the uterine tree shoots are selected that will be cut - solid and acquiring a varietal reddish tint.
After the preparatory work, the cuttings are planted about 3 cm deep into the ground ( without closing the bottom sheet), the distance between plantings is 7x7 cm.
Experienced gardeners recommend creating a good microclimate for the planted cuttings - should be carefully cleaned several times a day, cover the landing with film, making sure that the temperature under it does not rise above 30 ° C.
After 15-20 days the film can be removed, during which time the first roots should appear and the plants will need airing and oxygen.
The timing of propagation by cuttings determines the success of the result. Cuttings are cut in the middle of summer , preferably in the early morning or evening, in the process of germination it is important to them that there is no excessive heat and cold, which is why the greenhouse film is installed.
For winter, it is recommended to sprinkle the rooted cuttings with peat or fallen leaves to avoid frostbite of young roots.
How to root green cuttings:
How to propagate root shoots?
Universal is the method of propagation of plums from the root shoots , which is recommended to clean, as it takes away the fruiting forces of the mother tree.
A small young sprout( up to 50 cm in height) from this growth can be a material for planting. The shoot should grow at a distance of about 1 m from the main tree, be well developed, not affected by insects.
When choosing a developed root system is important, which will allow the escape to take root easily in a new place.
The shoot is carefully separated from the main roots of the mother plum , the place where the root is pruned is sprinkled with ash. The separated shoot is placed in a well-moistened soil, in a shady place where it will adapt to new conditions - independent growth.
Its top is pinned .As a rule, in a month fresh leaflets will appear on it - this means that the rooting process was successful.
Plum is an unpretentious plant that is able to multiply by root shoots and independently adapt, which only confirms this. However, young seedlings need good care and timely fertilizer.
One month after transplanting the shoots, requires the first feed - saltpeter, azofoska, nettle extract, or cow manure, which are diluted in water. Feeding can be carried out every two weeks to make the plant stronger.
Grow a plum seed? Maybe!
Reproduction of plum seeds by seeds is also often used by gardeners. At the same time, the preservation of varietal properties is unlikely; special observations of the seedlings, control and selection of the best are required here, only then will a varietal plum be obtained.
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Planting material is necessary for seed planting. Famous breeder V.N.Shalamov writes that the fruit, from which the bones are taken, must be perfectly mature , after removal it is left to the limit of lying, only then the bones are taken from it.
They are freed from the pulp, washed and dried under natural conditions, avoiding sunlight. Dried seeds are transferred to a plastic bag, closed and stored until autumn or spring planting at room temperature.
The ripening of the seed from plums of different varieties occurs up to 180 days , many breeders suggest mixing during this periodselected plum stones with wet sand and store them in a refrigerator or a special box dug into the ground and protected from water, insects and rodents.
After such storage, many seeds hatch, which means the results of planting will be more successful.
The planting of prepared seeds takes place in spring or autumn of , into well-prepared and fertilized soil( VN Shalamov recommends fertilizing 1 square meter of planting bed with a mixture of humus( 4-6 kg), superphosphate( 70 g), potassium salt( 30d) ammonium nitrate( 30 g) and lime( 50-90 g).
Over the entire period of growth, the land should be weed free, wet and burnt, pest damage is carefully avoided. After 1-2 years, the selected seedlings can be transplanted to a permanent place .as a seedling grew during one season. The better the growth, the higher the winter hardiness and vitality.
Grafting as a way to preserve
varieties. This method is the most successful for preserving the varietal qualities of plums. Stock, i.e.the basis on which the vaccination is carried out is usually grown from seed, more rarely from root shoots.
When summing up, the extra leaves and branches of the are removed in advance, it is watered abundantly to activate sap flow. The age of the stock should not exceed one year, it is desirable that its mother tree was winter-hardy plum.
The graft may be a kidney or cutting, each with its own grafting methods.
The graft with a kidney is called an aspiration .A special budding knife from a varietal tree cuts a kidney - a strip of bark about 3 cm and about 0.5 cm thick with a strongly developed bud. At the stock at a level of about 4 cm from the soil, an incision is made, where, carefully bending the bark, a shield with a bud is inserted.
Budding can also be carried out in another way, when the graft is cut with a wedge with a thorn up to 15 cm above the bud, which is inserted under the prepared tongue on the stock. In this case, it is recommended to vaccinate two buds on one stock at a distance of about 4 cm and 11 cm from the soil in order to increase the success of the vaccination.
The budding site is carefully tied with polyethylene, leaving only the kidney open. The harness is removed after 3 weeks after vaccination.
Grafting with cuttings has a longer preparation. Cuttings are harvested in advance and stored during the autumn-winter season and are grafted in two ways: in cleft or behind the bark.
Splitting assumes that the stock and graft are about the same thickness, but this is not a requirement. The stock is cut horizontally and in the center a vertical split is made with a depth of no more than 3 cm( if the stock is a stump left over from an old plum, then the depth does not exceed 7 cm).
The handle should be trimmed so that there are 4-5 holes above the place of intended alignment. The lower part of the cutting is cut with a wedge similar to the stock( no more than 3 cm for a young stock).When the graft and the stock are in contact, they should press tightly against each other.
Grafting for bark is carried out by only with active sap flow, then the bark easily moves away from the stock. It is carefully cut, if you plan to plant several cuttings simultaneously, then in several places.
The handle is cut diagonally and connected to the stock. The joint should be tightly fitting, it is desirable that the wood layers come together.
After connecting the cutting with the stock, the grafting site is tightly tied with polyethylene, electrical tape or special elastic tape. The remaining open spaces are thickly covered with garden pitch.
Before the first leaflets, it is desirable to protect the vaccination from moisture, excess solar heat - the vaccination site is shaded and covered with a transparent bag.
rootstock. Plant in autumn, spring or summer: seasonal features of
Faced with the question of reproduction of plums, many wonder about the best time for it. Summer heat, like the beginning of spring and autumn in different climatic zones has its limits. This most important factor should be taken into account when determining the time for reproduction.
It is also important that reproduction of a plum can have a rather long preparatory stage of , for example, if seed preparation or root growth or cuttings are stored. All of them, as a rule, are collected in the summer-autumn period and persist until spring.
Propagation of fruit trees:
Each season has its own pruning action: the
- autumn and spring planting of the root shoots creates favorable conditions for the development of the plum. Autumn planting is carried out under frosts( October), spring is recommended immediately after the main water comes down( April-early May);
- vaccination is always carried out in the summer of , during the period of the greatest flow of plants, during this period there is a good survival rate of the scion;
- seed reproduction ( after seed preparation) is carried out in the spring.
Although plum is an unpretentious plant, it requires the care and care of at all stages of its growth.
Propagate the plum, getting excellent varietal qualities and good adaptability, will help attentive attitude, regular watering, feeding and observation of grown animals.