Plum Hungarian is a varietal group that differs from others with excellent taste, high yield and long shelf life. The peculiarity of the Hungarian is that only from its fruits can one make prunes. Other types of plums are unsuitable for this.
Table of contents
- Variety group description
- Common varieties of Hungarian
- Characteristics of fruits
- Rules for planting seedlings
- How to care for a Hungarian?
- Reproduction of plum of Hungarian
- Diseases and pests
- Reviews of gardeners
Variety group description
There is no exact data on the origin of the plum. It is assumed that it appeared in the form of a hybrid as a result of perepylyvaniya alycha and turn in the Caucasus. According to other sources, her homeland is Asia. Who brought out a variety of plum Hungarian - is unknown, but its name was received due to the fact that Russia was brought from Hungary, in 1900.
Originally it was grown on the Black Sea coast. It was Hungarian Italian. The variety is thermophilic, not resistant to frost, it likes high humidity of air and soil. But he has the most delicious and sweet fruits.
Over time, a variety of varieties adapted to frost and drought, but not of quality and preserving the ability to make prunes out of them, was produced. Now grown everywhere - from the shores of the Black Sea to the Leningrad region. For each region has its own, zoned variety.
Characteristics of the eel group discharge:
- trees are mostly medium-sized, with a height of 3 a meter. The crown is pointed upward or oval. Shoots are reddish-brown, often located;
- self-fertilized, but there are also partially self-fertile varieties;
- productivity is high;
- the first time fructifies in 6 - 8 years after landing on a permanent place. There are modern hybrids, the first harvest from which can be removed after 3 or 4 years;
- the fruit ripening period depends on the variety: the middle-ripened harvest is harvested at the end of August, and the late varieties are harvested by the end of September.
- the life of the tree is 25 to 30 years.
Description of fruits:
- fruits large, up to 6 cm in length, in diameter 4 - 5 cm. They have the shape of an elongated ellipse, or egg-shaped;
- plums are asymmetric, one part is convex, the other is flattened and smaller;
- pronounced lateral seam;
- fruits of dark color - blue, purple, violet.
- covered with a waxy coating of a bluish or smoky shade;
- bone is easily separated, the fruit itself is divided into two parts without effort;
- The flesh is elastic, dense. Color depends on the variety;
- sugar content is 13 - 15%;
- caloric content of 42 kcal per 100 gr.
Common varieties of Hungarian
The main differences between varieties in winter hardiness, ability to self-pollination, fruit size and their taste.
The height of the tree is 4 meters, the crown is round, sprawling, up to 6 meters in diameter. Fruits from 4 years, productivity from 50 to 70 kg from one tree, depending on the weather conditions.
Samoplodna, but when pereapylenii with Hungarian Alzhansky or domestic, the yield rises. The variety is mid-ripening, the fruits are ready for harvest at the end of August.
Hungarian Italian does not tolerate frosts, in the cool summer the yield is lowered.In the dry summer without watering, the ovaries are showered. Cultivated in the southern regions, in the Central Black Earth regions it is possible, but in the winter it freezes. It takes time to recover.
This variety has the largest and sweetest fruits. More varieties are suitable for prunes.
The height is 3 meters, the crown is paniculate with raised branches. Fruits from 5 years, yield about 30 kg.
Without cross pollination does not bind fruit. For pollinators, varieties are suitable: Michurinskaya, Zyuzinskaya, Peach, Reklada Reform and others. Fruits ripen in September.
Frost resistance is average.Suitable for Central Black Earth areas,but in frosty winters there is a chance of freezing. It is recovering quickly.
The height is 3 - 4 meters. Branches grow at an acute angle. This leads to the fact that in winter, under the weight of wet snow or ice, branches break off. Severe damage to the bark can lead to the death of the tree. The same happens with a plentiful harvest, from the severity of the fruit. This can be provided and pre-set the supports under the branches.
The variety is middle-ripening, it is appreciated because of juicy fruits with a delicate taste.Plums can not fall off until 1 month, and taken not ripe, ripen at room temperature.
Winter hardiness is weak, it is recommended for cultivation in southern regions or in the south of the Central Chernozem region.
Height, meter, crown round, sparse, branches spreading. Fruits from 3 years, yield up to 30 kg.
Partly self-fertilized. Without overexploitation yield decreases. Fruits can be harvested in the second half of August.Winter-hardy, suitable for regions with cold winters. Resistant to the clasterosporium.
The height is not more than 3 meters. The crown is dense, rounded, with drooping branches. Fruits 6 to 8 years after planting. Productivity 20 - 35 kg.
Samoplodna, the harvest period is the beginning of September. Winter resistant, suitable for cultivation in the central part of Russia. During freezing, it is quickly restored.Plums are sour, suitable for blanks.
The height is 3 - 4 meters, the crown is sprawling, the branches are sparse. Fruits from 3 years. Productivity 25 kg.
Partially self-fertilized. To increase the yield, it is necessary to cross-pollinate. To do this, the early ripening or the Winter Red is suitable. Maturation later, uneven. Fruits gather all September.
In rainy weather, the peel on the fruit crackles.A variety of wintering grounds, bred for cultivation in the Leningrad region.
The height is 4 meters. The crown is pyramidal or sprawling. Fruits from 3 to 4 years. Yield of 25 - 30 kg.
Self-fertilized. Fruits are ready for harvest at the end of August. Winter-resistant, drought-resistant. In cold winters, the wood is protected from freezing by thick bark. Part of the fetal kidneys with freezing temperature drops freezes..
The branches are weak, grow at an acute angle.So that they do not break with the severity of the fruits, at the end of July it is necessary to put the supports..
Characteristics of fruits
In the varieties listed above, the shape of the fruit is obovate. They differ in mass, color and taste.
|Variety name||Weight (gr)||Color of the fetus||Pulp||Taste|
|Italian||35||dark, uneven transition from blue to violet, brown tide||bright orange, fleshy||sweet|
|Voronezhskaya||30-35||blue-brown||elastic greenish||sweet with sourish|
|Michurinskaya||25-30||blue - purple||dense, juicy, green with yellowness||tender|
|Belarusian||40||uniform blue||elastic orange||sweet and sour|
|Moscow||20||transition of red, blue and violet colors||coarse, amber color||malosaharistaya, sourish|
|Pulkovo||20-25||blue, sometimes reddish-brown spots||light honey color||not pronounced|
|Korneevskaya||35||blue with brown tint||fleshy, honey||sweet|
Rules for planting seedlings
When to plant seedlings - depends on the climate. In the southern regions it is better to plant at the end of September. Long, cool autumn promotes better survival. In the central strip and north, the best time for disembarkation is April, before budding. If you plant in the autumn, then to the onset of cold weather Hungarian will not get accustomed.
If the place is in the lowland, flooded during floods and rains, it does not fit to lay a plum garden. Groundwater should not be higher than a meter from the surface of the soil.
Planting holes are prepared for 10 days. Their size is 60x60 cm, the depth is the same. Prepare nutritious soil: the ground is mixed in half with humus, add 300 g of superphosphate, 50 g of potassium salt and wood ash, 400 g. If planting is carried out in the spring, it is necessary to add nitrogen, which is necessary for the growth of foliage and the formation of shoots. In the autumn it is not added.
Before landing in the bottom of the pit, a strong pole is driven in, which will support the young tree for the first two years.The root neck should be 4 cm above the ground when planting. The distance between the landing pits should be about 4 meters.
Before full rooting, the ground in the trunk circle is kept moist. Frequent watering can be avoided if a layer of mulch is put in the hole..
How to care for a Hungarian?
When caring for a plum garden, the following activities are carried out:
- regular watering.Even drought tolerant varieties respond to watering by increasing the yield. Watering is important during flowering and during the period when fruits grow in mass;
- top dressing.In the spring, before flowering, organic, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contribute. In autumn, after harvest, fertilizers are the same, excluding nitrogen;
- permanent removal of the overgrowth;
- weeding and loosening.If the near-range circle is covered up, then this is not necessary;
- installation of supports under the branches, on which there are many fruits;
- annual regulating pruning,during which young shoots thickening the crown, weak, intertwining, are removed;
Reproduction of plum of Hungarian
Hungarian is propagated in several ways:
- seeds(bones). Bone before landing in the ground must pass stratification in the refrigerator from September to March. In March, they sink into the ground, in the fall to school. A year later the seedling is ready for planting in a permanent place;
- vegetatively.Cuttings and shoots are suitable for vegetative propagation. Rooting with a little root is the most effective way. Planted immediately to a permanent place.
- Experienced gardeners breed plumvaccination,but this is a more time-consuming process.
Diseases and pests
Plum Hungarian is more resistant to disease and pest damage than other species.
Under unfavorable conditions: the thickening of the crown and excessive dampness, the plum may become ill with a klysterosporiosis, moniliasis, rust or coccomicosis. These are fungal diseases that are treated with copper-containing drugs. A 1% Bordeaux mixture proved to be very good.
In addition to spraying, it is necessary to remove all plant debris from the tree trunk, remove diseased leaves and damaged shoots. They are taken out of the plot and burned.
For prevention, every spring, before bud blossoming, trees are treated with 3% solution of Bordeaux fluid.
Plums like such pests as apple moth, mucous sawfly, running moth, hawthorn and others. I treat insecticides. It is important to observe the time of harvest. It is recommended to perform two-fold treatment after 10-14 days, but on condition that the harvest can be collected only 30 days after treatment.
Prevention of pests is the treatment with carbophos two times:in the period of bud budding and immediately after flowering. In autumn, it is necessary to remove old withered branches, to peel the bark, and to remove leaf litter where the pests of larvae can hide.
Reviews of gardeners.
- Gennady:When I was on vacation in the Krasnodar Territory, I got into a plum garden. A large plantation was planted with the Italian Hungarian. I never ate such delicious plums! I brought a seedling home, but I live in the Kursk region. The first two years of the winter were warm, and I guarded the tree-wrapped it with lutrasil. He has got accustomed and has noticeably grown up. And the third winter was frosty, there was not much snow. And what was my sorrow, when in the spring my tree did not dissolve any kidneys! It's frozen out! Now I adhere to the rule: "Where I was born, it was useful". Planted in his garden Hungarian Voronezh. This year, she will be 4 years old. From year to year I wait for harvest.
- Christina:I have a dacha in the Moscow region. Wenger Moscow is pleased with us for many years. Fruits are more acidic than sweet, like only my granddaughter. But compotes, jams and jams - obedenie. And this year I want to try prunes. Before, I did not know that it was possible, but tried it with my neighbor, and I liked it.
- Ulyana:We have a capricious climate in the Leningrad Region. In other years, little is born. But the plum garden always pleases - every year it bears fruit, yes, according to how! The variety of our plums is called the Hungarian Pulkovo. Brought out specifically for the cold climate. We gather all the September, grab and eat, and make preparations.