Autonomous hot water supply - a note of comfort, which is already familiar sounds in our homes and apartments. And to ensure their independence from feeding hot water can be generated by setting the heating device.
Therefore, we consider in detail the characteristics of the different models and compare what is best water heater - instantaneous or storage, because each of these devices has advantages and performance nuances.
The content of the article:
- The operating principle of instantaneous water heaters
- Structural features of electrical appliances
- Geysers and nuances
- Pros and cons of instantaneous heating
- The device and the characteristics of the storage water heater
- Comparison of water heating devices
- Weight and dimensions of units
- Performance based on the number of people
- Efficiency and resource consumption
- Installation and connection to the water supply
- What to choose a water heater
- Useful videos on the topic
The operating principle of instantaneous water heaters
The name of these devices speaks for itself - they warm up the water immediately when you turn on and bring it to the point of water pumping is already warm, and dispensing with the cumbersome storage tanks. The energy source may be a heating element or gas burner, rarer solid aggregates.
Structural features of electrical appliances
Such heaters are divided into non-pressure and pressure. The first developed for use on a crane (usually immediately completed shower head or a spout), the level of the internal pressure is equal to atmospheric.
Pressure - powerful systems capable of delivering hot water to multiple draw-off points, due to the high pressure in the water network.
The heating capacity is small, inside which is filled by a non-isolated heater or coil for heating the cold water. In the closed system, the heating elements are not directly in contact with the water stream passes through a copper or brass tube, so there are no problems such heater with scum and the need for regular cleaning.
Devices with open spiral energy consumption by 15-20% more, but warm water is much more effective. But because they have a heating element is in the water, it is advisable to install the inlet filter system, although manufacturers and argue that the device is designed so that when the created vibrations that do not allow the scale to settle on spiral.
For safe operation of all devices equipped with sensors that monitor the heating temperature, flow rate and exit heaters as needed. Adjust the water feed temperature can crane, increasing or reducing the pressure. Most models are equipped with a switch and a mechanical, but there are devices with temperature programming at the control unit.
Geysers and nuances
Although electric heaters are more confident model gaining market share, at least successfully operated and "pioneers" of hot water - gas column. In these devices, the cold water flows through the winding coil and is heated by the burner flame.
But the installation of gas heaters has a number of nuances. For their installation is necessary to obtain special permission from the gasman, equip the room is well ventilated and the chimney, where air with combustion products will be displayed. In addition, for the column must stable water pressure, with a pressure of at least 0.25 atmospheres, or simply turn on the unit.
Therefore, no problem to install (or rather - replaced) gas column can be only in the homes, the draft of which has already been provided for this equipment. And in the new buildings is better to give preference to electrical safety.
Pros and cons of instantaneous heating
Devices directly heating stream can provide an unlimited resource of warm water without preheating and the long wait.
- Compact models do not occupy much space and can be hidden behind the facades of furniture or installed next to the sink to minimize heat loss.
- Do not consume energy when turned off the tap, in contrast to the boiler.
- Rapidly heated water to 35-60 degrees (depending on the model and power of the cold flow temperature).
- Are at times cheaper storage units.
The disadvantage is a low pressure hot flow at low power devices, because the water must have time to warm up during passage through the small tube heat exchanger. Also heaters demanding power wiring, if installed a flow system for the entire house or a few points need to line 380, normal 220 will not pull.
Another significant drawback concerns low-cost devices with fixed heating capacity - in cold and warm season, the water temperature can vary up to 20 degrees (and is at the same head). That is, in the heat tap water can reach 50 ° C, and in winter will take a shower with invigorating 30-40 ° C.
The device and the characteristics of the storage water heater
The device itself is a roomy insulated tank with pipes for supplying cold and hot water output. Inside the container is placed on the heater 1-2 kW, a temperature sensor and a magnesium anode, which protects the device from sludge.
There is another variety of storage devices - boilers of indirect heating, where the role played by the heating element coil that is connected to the heating circuit. But this option is often chosen in addition to the main water heater to save energy during the cold year, and in the summer he works on the principle of an electric water heater (of course, provided that the package includes TEN).
When the boiler draws water and heats it to a preset temperature (for example, heating at 100 l TAN 2 kW to 60 degrees takes about 2 hours). When water is heated, the thermostat is triggered and disconnects the heating element.
Advantages of boiler:
- For connection does not need a powerful power line, even on standard 220 V device to serve multiple mixers simultaneously without problems.
- The ability to retain the water temperature in the tank for a long time (when the presence of a quality thermally insulating jacket heating level will not decrease more than 1-2 ° C per hour).
- Able to just "give" a large amount of water, for example, for a quick bath filling.
- The temperature of the water supplied is always the same and does not depend on the time of year.
A downside to the main heater may include incremental limit limited hot water for a long time Standby heat "from scratch" and the impressive dimensions of the tank (and the greater needs of the family, the more cumbersome is device). It should also be appreciated that if the device is not disconnected from the network, it will consume power even in the standby mode, warming water to set parameters during cooling.
Comparison of water heating devices
Flow-through heaters, and vary in size, cost, appearance, and consumption of energy. Consider the most significant differences.
Weight and dimensions of units
In this category the winners, no doubt, will be in-line heating devices - they weigh less than 2 kg and is compact. For example, to connect to the soul of the instrument is sufficient width of 30 cm and 15-18 cm in height and thickness of 10-11 cm, which did not take place even in the standard booth.
Although there are storage heater the size of a soccer ball, their storage capacity is calculated by only 5-10 liters, which is not enough even for the needs of one person. So we have to find a place in the round or rectangular unit of at least 55h50h40 see (and this is for the capacity of only 50 liters). Moreover, suitable for wall fastening device volume to 120 liters and more capacious model designed for installation on the floor.
Performance based on the number of people
The main criterion of the boiler performance is considered to be the volume of its inner tank (and the power of the heating element in manufactured goods is already "tied" to the size of the tank). Therefore, the drive sizes are selected solely on the needs of the family.
Determine the required performance for the electric heater can flow along the flow speed (less than the power device, the thinner will trickle hot water). Recommended speed of movement of water in the pipes can be studied in SNIP 2.04.02-84, and find comfort - independently, substituting for shower heads or crane bucket and measuring the amount of leaked per minute water.
Calculating a performance by the following formula:
V = 14,3 * (W / T2 - T1)where
V - maximum flow rate;
W - the heater power in kW;
T2 - set temperature of heating water;
T1 - water temperature in the water (for the winter is around 0 ° C, for the summer + 15 ° C, but it all depends on the climatic characteristics of your area).
But it is easier to trust the manufacturer's recommendations, read the instructions. In its scope of application should be listed and how many liters of product per 1 minute the device can be heated.
On average, the shower will need the heater 5-8 kW, for the tap in the kitchen sink or in the bathroom is quite 3-3.5 kW, and for the supply of several draw-points - from 12 kW or more.
Efficiency and resource consumption
Many consumers do not even consider the flow heaters due to the large power consumption. But this is not entirely correct. If you remember at least a high-school physics, it becomes clear that to heat one liter of water You will need the same amount of energy, no matter what kind of device it is to warm up, or flow storage.
Therefore, power consumption will be greater in the storage water heater, because the waste of resources, not only for heating water, but also to maintain its temperature. For example, a device with polyurethane insulation thickness of 5.4 cm will consume 2.1 kWh for protection against cooling. Flow heater is more demanding on the network capacity, but spends as much energy as is required for the issuance of the requested amount of water.
As for the cost of heating devices, the price of boilers 2-3 times higher than the cost of acquiring the flow unit, although, of course, much depends on the model and its power. And in terms of prevention of the flow system is less hit on the budget - when installing a filter on the entrance to look inside the device will have no more than once in a couple of years.
Care boiler requires regular cleaning of limestone both the heating element and the inner walls of the tank and the timely replacement of the magnesium anode rod. If we ignore these recommendations, the unit will continue to increase the warm-up time and spend more and more energy, and eventually fail. But even with good care devices rarely "survive" more than 10 years, but the flow heaters easily pass this mark.
Installation and connection to the water supply
Assemble a simple flow-through water heater is simple enough, even if the repairs in the apartment is over. The device has a special attachment for which it is easy to hang on the wall (even plasterboard), as any hanging lockers. By using a flexible hose connected to the water system input and the output of hot water - to the mixer.
If it's a powerful tool, designed for more than 5 kW, it is connected with a separate cable from the panel to the mains voltage of 380 V.
special anchors (10 mm diameter and 100 mm in length) are mounted for fastening the boiler to the wall anchor, and on which is suspended the device. Then, the overlapped plumbing system goes down the pressure in the pipe cuts valves and tees. To extend the "life" TENu, on the cold water inlet is further recommended to embed fine mechanical filters and deep cleaning.
Boiler connected through an RCD in a dedicated outlet with mandatory grounding. After switching on the device to the network activity indicator lights up, then it is possible to program the temperature of heating water and test mode operation.
What to choose a water heater
Although storage devices are more common and popular to consumers before the purchase is worth heater consider all the possibilities based on the number of people in the family, the wiring capacity, size of the house and its plan.
Several options for consideration:
- If the mains power, you can place the device instantaneous heating only shower. It does not have to wait several hours to heat the storage tank, and will not have a situation where the last in the queue is not enough hot water. A boiler is useful for filling a bath, washing dishes and other household needs. In addition, this tandem will select drive smaller and save the useful area.
- Also, the combination of heaters makes sense if the kitchen is located away from a bathroom or places on the tank. In this case you should consider installing a flow device in the sink faucet. And even if the mains in the building standard, it is quite enough and low power devices for the kitchen faucet.
- Installing outdoor boiler with a large volume will help solve the problem of hot water when there is no possibility to carry out a three-phase cable in the room.
- For cottages with seasonal attendance is better to install instantaneous water heater - did not have to wait long for hot water, and in the accumulation of "reserves" in this case, it makes little sense.
- If a private house working gas or solid fuel boiler with a single circuit can be connected to it indirectly heating boiler and save on electricity in winter.
The conclusion suggests itself: small and irregular consumption flow is sufficient instrument for permanent - it is better to choose a boiler.
But when a large flow rate can be considered a combination of different types of heaters or install flow system with high-power three-phase connection to the network.
Useful videos on the topic
To perform visual comparative analysis of water heating devices, examine footage from artists advice on selecting and installing equipment.
About device embodiments and design accumulative heaters:
Electrical appliances direct heating principle and varieties:
Criteria for selection of electric boilers and flow heaters:
As you can see, there is no unequivocal answer to the question, what is better for the house - or the cumulative flow heater, because each device has its own characteristics and nuances. But if you can not decide for yourself, consult a professional craftsmen who specialize in the installation of water heaters and installation of plumbing systems. They are prompt, what option would be the "golden mean" for your house or apartment.