For the construction of manhole mine once used only natural materials: stones and logs. With the advent of technology of concrete products construction of independent water supply facilities is much simpler.
Who is to strengthen the walls of the mine in the course are special reinforced concrete rings for wells, which are produced in the factory.
The content of the article:
- Typical dimensions of concrete rings
- Mixing concrete mix
- The ratio of ingredients in the concrete solution
- As the calculated amount of water?
- Methods for kneading concrete solution
- Production of split molds
- How to make a metal mold?
- How to assemble the wooden formwork?
- The method of manufacture of wooden rings
- Manufacturing of the carcass reinforcing
- Pouring concrete into the mold
- Useful videos on the topic
Typical dimensions of concrete rings
If for some reason you can not use manufactured goods, the owner of a country or suburban area should consider options for their self-production.
To do this, from the materials at hand to make the form, set its reinforcing mesh, and then pour concrete solution, mixed in strictly defined proportions.
In factories producing reinforced concrete products and structures, use a special product labeling. Pit standard size rings have the same height of 900 mm. The wall thickness of the cylinder and its diameter can vary. The wall thickness varies from 70 to 140 mm, and the diameter - by up to two meters.
With an increase in ring diameter and the thickness of its walls increases the consumption of concrete. Mass of product also depends on the data size. To reduce the weight of the finished product is only trying to reduce the height of the RC-rings, and the walls make possible thicker. On sale you can see the items, up to 350, 450 or 500 mm. They also called for final assembly of rings and mounted at the end of works when the product is already in standard sizes is not entirely in the dug well.
Another way to "legitimate" weight reduction well ring is mandatory use of a reinforcement mesh. When this wall thickness may be 6-8 cm, which does not impair the strength properties of the product. Therefore better to do with their hands RC ring reinforcement for the construction of wells in the area.
Lose weight well ring is necessary in order not to use the lifting equipment during installation work. It is important for summer residents and gardeners have decided not only to make products with their own hands, but also to move them on the site without the involvement of specialized equipment.
Mixing concrete mix
For the preparation of concrete, coming later in the manufacture of rings, you will need:
- cement (binder);
- sand (fine aggregate);
- gravel (coarse aggregate);
For quality concrete cement buy brand "400", packed in paper bags of 25 kg. If the right to use the building material does not imply that pobespokoytes its proper storage. The bags are stored in a dry place. Better yet, pour cement into closed containers iron. If possible, use the purchased cement immediately after purchase.
For mixing concrete silica sand reserves, which is considered ideal in small vehicle. Silt, clay and other types of impurities contained in the brought bulk material, adversely affect the quality of concrete mix. Therefore, this sand is washed with water, removing it from unwanted impurities.
Not everyone is suitable for mixing gravel concrete, going on the casting ring. Selected crushed granite with grains having a cubic shape, contributes to a better coupling material with the other ingredients of the concrete mix. Do not use gravel leaf (needle-like) shape. Rubble contaminated with clay before kneading and washed with water.
For casting of concrete rings acquired granite gravel with size fractions that do not exceed a quarter of the thickness of the product. For rings with a 10 centimeter wall suitable gravel, grain size which does not exceed 20 mm.
The ratio of ingredients in the concrete solution
Properties of concrete mortar are directly dependent on the number of components in its composition, as well as their size and weight. In drawing ratio between the three essential ingredients needed to obtain high-quality concrete, based on the fact that the amount of the cement is equal to unity.
Casting concrete well rings shuts mixture, taking cement, sand and gravel in the proportional ratio by volume 1: 2: 3 by weight or 1: 2.5: 4. For example, the tank is filled cement bucket, two buckets of sand and gravel are three buckets. Add half a bucket of water. Or, a 100 kg cement (bag 4) was added to 250 kg of sand and 400 kg of crushed stone. Add 50 liters of water. In the preparation of one cubic meter of concrete leaves 300 kg of cement, 400 M, 750 kg of sand and 1200 kg of gravel. The mixture was diluted with 150 liters of water.
As the calculated amount of water?
Water affects the mobility of the concrete mix and strength of the product after it hardens. The ratio of water and cement in a solution called water-cement ratio and is denoted by W / C. this value must be no more than 0.5-0.7 for concrete rings. W / C equal to 0.5 In the above examples. Thus the weight or volume of the cement taken bisect give the desired displacement of water.
More grout easier to fill in forms and ramming, but it will have to stay longer in the workpiece. It increases the time for primary hardening solution. The mixture was not sprawling after compression her hand into a ball, allows to immediately remove the workpiece and to use it for the next stamping products. However, ramming it more convenient with the help of vibrators.
Methods for kneading concrete solution
Manual method of mixing the components of the concrete mix is now rarely used. Concrete mixer factory and handicraft industry better able to cope with this time-consuming task.
The poured concrete mixer the sand and cement, more water is added, and then crushed stone, previously moistened with water. Having obtained a homogeneous mass, the equipment is turned off and pour the solution into a container on wheels. This allows you to drop off the heavy concrete to fill the place of the ring.
Production of split molds
Before we engage in the manufacture of rings for the construction of the well with your hands, you must first make metallic split mold for pouring concrete or wooden formwork of the component parts. And then, and another made from scrap materials available on site or borrowed from friends.
Formulations for manufacturing w / w rings are offered by many companies. Acquire them for once not profitable, it is better to rent. You can see how they are designed, and borrow some elements to build their own forms.
How to make a metal mold?
Homemade collapsible form consisting of two rings of different diameters made of steel drums, pipes, ducts and other metal suitable for this purpose. The two cylinders are inserted into each other so that between them remains the same distance equal to the thickness of the well ring.
To the outside and the inside of the mold can be easily removed after setting of the concrete, it is necessary to cut them into two pieces grinder. The inner cylinder is easier to remove if it will consist of three separate parts. Although it is possible to cope with the two just have longer tinker inside the ring.
On all component parts of the form necessary to provide for the presence of fasteners that do not allow the form to move apart during filling with concrete inter-ring space. As the fasteners are used:
- Door or window awnings;
- welded lugs subtended by bolting;
- other devices that can cope with the task.
On the cylinder wall is desirable to weld the handle to make it easier to tear off the form from the concrete. To facilitate the maximum shooting forms recommended cylinder surface in contact with the concrete lining of the polyethylene film. You can lubricate these surfaces waste oil, but it is not welcomed by environmentalists.
To withstand the same distance between the cylinders, use wooden or metal spacer, securely fixing position of the two annular parts of the mold.
It is important to ensure that the outer blank form formwork for concrete rings easily open outward, and the inner - also freely moved away in the opposite direction.
How to assemble the wooden formwork?
A good carpenter is not difficult to make a formwork for casting concrete rings from scrap lumber. Two cylindrical surfaces prepared from wooden rings to one side of which nail boards. Their thickness should be at least 20 mm but not more than 40 mm.
On both sides of the board are well ostrugivayut, making the surface as smooth as possible. For ease of disassembly wooden cylinder is cut into four pieces. For bonding adjacent preforms using wooden slats, bolts, hooks, steel staples and other devices.
The inner wall of the wooden formwork, having the smaller diameter is collected in a similar manner. Only two are taken as a basis of wood of smaller-diameter ring portion and the same board (20-40 mm) for plating. In the first case the board nailed on the inner circle, the second - on the outside.
The result is two Extra cylinder forming its space between surfaces, then fills with concrete. The smaller cylinder is sawn into three parts. If you cut it in half, then it is necessary to provide for the presence of a small gap (1.5-2 cm) to facilitate the recording of internal formwork.
The method of manufacture of wooden rings
Wooden formwork rings cut out from the square board, brought down from 20 mm boards stacked in two layers perpendicular to each other. The first layer laid transversely, and the second - along. Side of the square shield is calculated taking into account:
- the inner diameter of the concrete ring (1000 mm);
- its wall thickness (80 mm);
- thickness formwork boards (20 mm);
- Wooden formwork ring width (150 mm).
In parentheses are approximate numbers that allow to count toward the square shield. Thus, to add the two 1000 mm x 20 mm, and then twice with 80 mm and two times with 150 mm. As a result we obtain: 1500 mm, or 1.5 m.
Cut out from one sheet once large ring for external formwork and small ring for internal formwork. Ring marked on board with pencil and rope replacement compass. Nail hammered in the point of intersection of the diagonals of the square, which is located by the intersection of two strung bichevok connecting opposite corners of the shield.
To tie the rope and clove, measuring out the required distance, is drawn in pencil four concentric circles. The radius of the largest circle is equal to 750 mm, the second - 600 mm, a third - 500 mm, and the fourth - 350 mm. Further hacksaw, jigsaw or chainsaw sawing along circumferences drawn to give two formwork ring. The same is doing a once again to obtain a second pair of rings.
It remains to nail to the rings at the desired side of the board with a thickness of 20 mm, and length - a meter (the height of the concrete rings). Boards have to each other as closely as possible. After manufacturing the cylindrical walls of the outer and the inner formwork, start their sawing into four parts. So get a split wooden mold for the manufacture of reinforced concrete rings at home.
Manufacturing of the carcass reinforcing
Using the reinforcement ring reduces the thickness, and hence its weight. In this case, the strength characteristics of the product and its lifespan increased. For reinforcing the frame will need:
- steel rods 8.10 mm (10 pieces);
- steel wire 8.10 mm in diameter (about 5 m);
- thin wire.
We calculate the length of the frame. For this calculation formula recall circumference: pi (equal to 3.14, rounded to 3) must be multiplied by the diameter. circle diameter of 104 cm take equal to the frame held in the middle of the concrete ring. Multiply this number by 3, we get 312 cm. Divide this number by 10, we get at 31.2 cm. Rounding up to 31 cm. So decompose steel bars on a flat surface at a distance of 31 cm from each other.
Further, it is welded to pieces of wire through a length of 315-318 cm 160 mm. The wire take slightly longer than the calculated length of the chassis to the workpiece when contracted in the ring could weld it ends or twist. Thick steel wire manually bending the mounting tabs and welds them to the frame (possible to fasten the fine wire). Everything is ready to frame. If there is no welding machine, all the elements of the frame can twist thin wire.
Pouring concrete into the mold
When all the preparatory work has been completed, proceed to the production of well ring. For this:
- laid on a flat surface of an iron sheet or wood panel;
- set form (one to another), carefully fixed part formwork;
- between the outer and inner walls of the formwork immersed reinforcing frame, fixing its position wedges;
- thick concrete mix (water / cement = 0.5) are placed in small layers inter-ring space (about 100 mm) and compacted using a steel rod 20 mm in diameter;
- creamy solution (W / C = 0.7) immediately poured into the mold to the brim, and then the mixture is compacted pin;
- after filling of the entire form, begin to end Leveling concrete ring, reporting trowel solution wherein it is not enough;
- the product is covered with plastic or dense tissue;
- the formwork is removed after 3-4 days (if the concrete was thick) 5-7 days (if the solution had a liquid), leaving the ring on the metal sheet or wooden board;
- Reinforced concrete ring wrapped with the packaging film to the concrete uniformly ripened for 2-3 weeks, gaining final strength;
It is recommended to wet the product with water every 4-5 days during the concrete maturation.
Useful videos on the topic
In the video master alone collects metal form, its walls daubed waste oil, the mixer all asleep ingredients and then pouring concrete mortar ready in a garden barrow drives up to form rings and begins to lay concrete spade formwork.
With the help of special equipment in the form of a master mixture thoroughly seals that was not in the walls of the well defects. The video shows how it is easier to remove the formwork, since the inner ring. Incidentally, the well ring is manufactured without reinforcing the carcass, so the thickness of the product is at least 15 cm.
This video is designed to form a thin cast concrete ring. The master uses as reinforcement steel wire, which are placed directly into the mixture in the die casting process. In the plot shown in more detail the process of laying the ingredients in the mixer.
As you can see, to make reinforced concrete rings for wells completely any healthy man. Special skills in the manufacture of molds and kneading a concrete solution is required.
Little tricks you can view video stories on this topic. During the month the person in the home can cast up to ten concrete rings, using a single form. That would be enough for the arrangement of the well shaft. Its depth depends on the bedding of the aquifer on your property.