If you can not hold the house gas, to solve the problem with independent heating and hot water account for using alternative energy sources. You can install the solar generators, heat with wood or pellets. However, the best solution may be to bypass electric boiler.
In the present article we described in detail the operation and equipment varieties, processing electrical energy into heat. Are the guidelines which should take into account the future owners of the unit before buying. The recommendations for economical operation.
The content of the article:
The principle of operation of the device
- Design features a two-circuit boiler
- Advantages and disadvantages of electrical equipment
Types of electric boilers
- Electrical appliances with heating elements
- Induction heating equipment
- Boilers with the electrode heaters
What to look for when buying?
- Selecting device according to the method of installation
- The calculation of the required power
- Other important nuances
- Methods savings in operation
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The principle of operation of the device
The design of the boiler a bypass arrangement provides in one unit the two heating elements for heating the water and coolant. Powered same system by converting electrical current to thermal energy.
Design features a two-circuit boiler
For heating boiler is connected to the heating circuit is closed type, in which coolant moves. A second conduit for supplying hot water which is heated in the internal storage tank or flow method.
During warmer months, heating can be turned off and only use the boiler as a boiler.
The two circuits of the electric boiler may operate as independently and simultaneously, and otaplivaya house heating water
The device consists of the following main elements:
- thermally insulated housing, inlet and outlet valves;
- a heat exchanger which circulates the coolant;
- control and automation unit that brings the temperature parameters and disable / enable the device;
- a heating device;
- Expansion tank for pressure relief;
- a safety valve;
- deaerator (automated or manual) to remove air pockets;
- Circular pumps for hot water and heating systems;
- Safety group with temperature sensors and relays.
The principle of operation of the electric boiler is the heat transfer: a circulation pump is pumping water into the tank, which warmed to a certain temperature, and a thermocouple output either the heating circuit or in DHW.
In essence, bypass the appliance, as well as its gas analogue can function and building boiler, and a flow heater for water.
Advantages and disadvantages of electrical equipment
Electric heating to treat environmentally friendly heating methods because it does not pollute the air with smoke and soot like a solid fuel boiler, carbon monoxide and other noxious "castings" as gas equipment.
In addition, the feature works Heating Electrical virtually eliminates the emergency force majeure leakage of water - if the coolant in the system will not, the equipment is automatically turned off.
In electric boiler excellent indicator of efficiency - 95-99%, but even this is not high heat compensates for large power consumption, so in comparison with gas boiler appliance losing
Also to the general advantages of electrical equipment may include:
- easy installation - there is no need to equip the chimney, forced ventilation system, the gas supply pipeline and execute permissions pile as when installing a gas boiler.
- Security - the probability of a leak or boil electric boiler is very small, in addition, design of the device It does not use an open flame, flammable and explosive materials gas.
- compact dimensions - an important point for small spaces. In addition, the device can be installed not only in a specially provided for the project site (as gas equipment), and in any place where there is a possibility to connect to mains and heating system.
- Quiet - electric boiler works without vibration, "exhaust" "and other sounds that sin solid and gas appliances.
- affordable both the device and its installation and maintenance.
As for the drawbacks, one of the most significant - the cost of energy consumed. If we are talking about electric heating and hot water for a large cottage, amounts will be impressive.
Therefore, no harm will be before you buy to make at least a rough calculation of consumption by analyzing information about the area, water consumption and power of the device. And then decide - whether the "game were" worth the cost.
It will help significantly reduce the cost to install special controllers, storage devices and differential counters, working in the "day-night" mode
- Dependence on energy supply - in areas with constant interruptions to the electricity installation of the heater loses its meaning. However, if the shutdown are random, and are not the norm, will help solve the problem of buying a generator to store energy.
- Voltage peaks detrimental effect on sensitive automation of the boiler, so before installing the equipment necessary to get good energy regulators.
- Sedimentation. Since hot water is used for running water, teplonagrevayuschie elements gradually covered with scale, which must be removed from the equipment. Decision is to install filters at the input of cold water and regular servicing.
In addition, before installing electric boilerWorth to know if your home network is designed for this load. For example, for a square 200 squares will require at least 16-20 kW.
And this is only for heating, without taking into account any other appliances. And if a new cottage communities such power is provided to connect the three-phase network, to suburban area usually not emit more than 10 kW.
Types of electric boilers
Modern electric boilers are equipped with heaters with different operating principle. But at the same time be used only with the construction of electric heaters for heating devices can be, and for hot water.
Connecting an electric boiler to the heating system and hot water often involves installation of a heat exchanger boiler or tank for storing hot pods
Other types of equipment can be used for domestic hot water only if connected to the boiler heating circuit indirect heating.
Electrical appliances with heating elements
In the most common models electrocoppers embedded heating elements - heating elements which are made of ceramics or metal, have the shape of rods, spirals or curved arc hollow rod within which a certain thread resistance. These and "intermediate", being heated by passing an electrical current and transmitting heat to the water.
Driving the electric boiler a bypass device. The number of elements depends on the power of the device and its internal volume, but additional heating elements, not only increase the heating rate, but also on energy costs and maintenance
The main drawback of the device - the rapid formation of scale on TENah, which degrades its performance. For example, when the thickness of lime scale only 0.5 mm, the efficiency of the device decreases by 10% from the nominal, and at 2 mm - 35-40%!
As a result, the device heats the water slowly, so power consumption is increased. Therefore, the boiler needs regular cleaning and periodic replacement of defective heating elements.
To prolong the life of PETN is recommended to clean the filter or add the coolant special emollients, and in the heating circuit pour distilled water.
In addition, Tan boilers require regular servicing, we are talking about the safe use of equipment. The heating element may gradually wear and burn.
If this happens to depressurization of the body - not so bad. In this case, the heated Nichrome simply fall apart on contact with water and not dangerous to humans. But if the disconnect element will remain intact and will continue to work the body, all metal body through a conductor, the water will be energized.
Induction heating equipment
Work induction boiler is based on magnetic induction, which allows you to convert electricity into heat energy. Inside the housing is a primary circuit with an inductive coil which when energized generates an alternating magnetic field.
The result is a so-called Foucault currents (or eddy) which was heated metal, and that transmits its heat to the circulating medium.
Time-tested TENovye boilers can be safely installed even in the living room, but for the induction tools provide better separate room - despite the advertising claims of manufacturers, medicine has not confirmed the harmlessness of electromagnetic fields for man
Advantages of induction boilers in comparison with TEN-ovymi devices:
- The highest level of efficiency - 98-99%.
- Large area heating and, accordingly, faster transmission of heat.
- On the heating element does not form a scum.
- Completely self-contained and do not require maintenance.
- In addition to water as a coolant may be used, and petroleum oil.
The main drawback of such devices - the high price and the need to connect indirect heating boiler or a storage tank for hot water at home. Therefore, despite the several advantages of induction equipment, the palm of leadership in consumer demand firmly hold TENovye combi boilers.
Boilers with the electrode heaters
The work electrode boiler is based on the high thermal conductivity of the water. Inside the housing a plus-and minus electrodes, generating an electric current circulates between them heat transfer agent.
Heating occurs through the energy that is released upon cleavage of the molecules into charged ions and their movements to the electrode corresponding to polarity. Due to this heating water in the boiler chamber is almost instantaneously.
A prerequisite for the electrode boiler - good grounding, because instruments are potentially dangerous devices and the body can "break through" the strong current charge
Advantages of electrode boilers in comparison with TEN-ovymi devices:
- Heat water to 10 times faster.
- Spend 20-30% less electricity.
- Are compact, even with high productivity (usually the model presented in the wall-mounted).
- Do not fail if power surges.
But due to the significant shortcomings electrode boilers is not yet widespread. In general, they are used for heating, but to arrange a second circuit for domestic hot water can be provided retrofit system indirect heating boiler.
These devices are very sensitive to the composition of the liquid, which is a coolant. Ordinary tap water is not possible, it is recommended to use a special liquid with a balanced salt composition. Furthermore, the electrodes during operation gradually dissolve and require replacement.
Electrode boilers are compact, but are distinguished by high capacity, so for heating large areas envisaged modules with multiple series-connected devices
For safe use of the electrode boiler is advisable to provide an additional set of automation, which is implemented separately and are often worth more than the device itself. First of all, a circulation pump and an electronic temperature controller which controls the heating temperature.
Needs and current controller regulates the current, with the ability to disconnect the equipment to prevent boil water.
What to look for when buying?
When you have figured out what type of device you want to buy, it's time to think about its size and technical parameters.
Most often electric boilers installed in the kitchen, but it is possible to equip the mini-boiler room, which will hide unattractive and communication accessories (holding tank, boiler and indirect heating etc.).
Selecting device according to the method of installation
Regardless of the type of construction, all combi boilers can be divided into two large groups - wall and floor. Size and model selection are directly dependent on the area that you need to heat, but also on the amount of free space under the apparatus itself.
Wall boiler differs from outdoor small sizes - if necessary, it can be hidden in the curtain cabinet or closet, but even undisguised instrument does not look bulky and is in harmony with other household appliances
Mounted devices are used to heat a relatively small area - 100 m2, so it is often installed in homes or small cottages. They are fixed on special brackets to any vertical surface that can support such a load.
Floor boilers - rather bulky devices, but may provide a home area of 200 m2 heat and uninterrupted water supply, wherein the storage container can either be built into the device itself (which greatly increases its size), and mounted separately
If squaring cottage exceeds 200 m2, can equip boiler with several of the electric boiler or the use of additional heating sources - Solid fuel equipment or solar panels.
The calculation of the required power
The easiest way - to divide the heated area 10. It is thought that when heating 10m2 It will be spent 1 kW, but the resulting figure is highly conditional, since such calculation is only useful for rooms with a height of no more than 3 meters.
In addition, the heat losses are largely dependent on the presence of insulation, quality of windows and their size, climate, terrain features and the materials used in the construction of the house.
If the home high ceilings, you must first determine the amount of space (area multiplied by height). Then to calculate the necessary power on the basis that 1 m3 will require 35 watts.
When you purchase the model under consideration, the power of which is 15-20% higher than your estimated figures - better set boiler weaker mode than during cold winter freeze running at the limit of equipment
To this result it is necessary to add a "reserve":
- 10% - large areas of glazing (windows, patio, etc.).
- 15% - in the absence of house insulation.
- 10-15% - for areas with cold winters.
- 20% - by an additional load when the hot water flow in the heating mode.
When calculating the required power for boilers with integrated drive must navigate to the specified manufacturer in product literature data.
The technical parameters of the boiler and the method of supply. Devices to 10 kW can be connected to a conventional network of 220 V, and more powerful boilers - a three-phase network (And, it may take permission from the local power grid, if the line is not brought into the house in 380).
Other important nuances
On the principle of double-circuit water heating electric boilers can be divided into flow and storage. The first - a good option for a small home and family, it can easily serve 1-2 draw-off point, in addition to heating. But in spite of the compactness and convenience in use, the device "2 in 1" has a significant drawback - a high load on the grid.
And here storage unit occupies much more space due to the additional reservoir, wherein the supply of stored hot water. The advantage of this type of equipment is that it can supply water in large quantities and allows save up to 10% on electricity, because it does not waste energy on a permanent heating, and only keeps it temperature.
Due insulation casing, heat loss of water in the tank per hour amount to no more than 0.5 degrees. The datasheet device for connection to the WAN system, must be specified its capacity - a temperature minimum and maximum volume of water and the necessary time for its heating.
Modern electric boilers allow you to control the device and to control the heating temperature in the room with the help of smart phones or "smart home"
In addition, the boiler can be equipped with:
- Automation unit for remote control from the console or via a network.
- Frost protection, which will allow to maintain a minimum temperature in the system, which is important for cottages and country houses, where there are no permanent residents.
- Sensors that monitor weather changes include the instrument by lowering the temperature and turn off at the sundial.
- Equipment, lowering the temperature of water for connection to the system "warm floor".
- Sensors with the possibility of programming the microclimate in the whole house or separate rooms at their discretion.
Of course, the "bonuses" from the manufacturer increases the cost of the device, but they can operate the boiler much more comfortable.
Methods savings in operation
To reduce energy costs by using an electric boiler as a heater and water heater, you need to reduce the total heat loss of the house.
First of all, it is necessary to replace the old wooden frames with modern windows with 2-3 airbags and care an insulation wall (best outer) plastic foam, mineral wool or other materials with low thermal conductivity
Other saving options:
- Optional connection or separate devices operating on the alternative energy (solar cells, wind turbines, wood fire) significantly reduce electricity consumption.
- Tariff meters allow to pay less for heating at night, and during the morning and evening "rush hours" the device can be disabled (the most expensive electricity costs expended in between 8.00 - 11.00 and 20.00 - 22.00). And if you combine the system of external accumulator tank can accumulate overnight "cheap" energy to spend her day.
- Heat exchanger in the ventilation system will help keep warm air inside the house.
- Weekly programmer will collect data about system activity for a specified period of time to choose the most convenient and economical mode of operation with minimal energy consumption.
- The room thermostat will control the changes in the microclimate of the house and transmit data to the built-in inside the boiler sensor which will switch on / off heating, air spared from unnecessary overheating and heat.
With proper organization operating the electric boiler can reduce power consumption and associated costs to 40%.
With the energy-saving property embodiments suburban heating acquaint next article, Analyzed in detail by this very interesting question.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
We encourage you to read a selection of reviews and practical advice on the use of electric boilers of different design for heating and hot water at home.
The nuances of electric heating - boilers and other Electro-heating instruments, calculation of power equipment and the cost of heating season:
Although the two-circuit electric boilers seem very comfortable to use, before you go for the purchase, calculate the cost of electricity for the cold season or contact Thermal Technology.
You may advise more economical system with a single-circuit boiler with indirect heating or boiler design the joint heating, where the "greediness" of the appliance will be compensated by additional sources energy.
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