Installation of fire alarm: how to install correctly
At the moment, the security-fire alarms have become quite common, which increase the level of protection of all kinds of objects. Thanks to its "multifaceted" functionality and component composition, not only ignition is detected in a timely manner, but careful control over the protected territory is also carried out. Such a device is rather complicated and expensive to install and maintain, but you will not find an electronic device that is so reliable.
- 1How does the fire alarm system work?
- 2Features of design and calculation
- 3Types of systems
4The main types of sensors
- 4.1Thermal annunciators
- 4.2Smoke Detectors
- 4.3Flame detectors
- 4.4Gas leak detector
- 4.5Combined sensors
5Installation and connection of security and fire alarm systems
- 5.1Where and how to install fire sensors
- 6How does the notification system work?
- 7Possible malfunctions after installation
- 8How to remove the fire alarm yourself
- 9Video: how to connect OPS yourself
How does the fire alarm system work?
The fire-fighting system is a whole "set" of different technical devices that provide fire safety for various types of buildings, equipment, people, and material values. It includes two systems: alerts to people in the building and fire alarms.
Due to the fact that the hardware / software controller was installed, you will always see a fire center on the object's plan. If a semiautomatic mode has been set for alarms, then after it receives an alarm signal from it, the security service It should include a system for alerting personnel about fire and at the same time activate visual, voice, and voice message.
When a fire alarm in the building is confirmed, the main signal will send a "message" to the access control system and thereby lead all alarm elements to the emergency evacuation mode. Also, the signal will go to the control system of different engineering networks of the building, after which they will switch to the operating mode of fire danger.
A fire-fighting device operating in automatic mode performs the following functions:
- Identification of the fire zone;
- Detection of the outbreak after 2 single confirmation from the moment of registration;
- Monitoring of network problems for a short circuit, as well as a break with a binding to the building plan;
- Detection of the source at the initial stage;
- Management of different blocks with output of the results to the workstation dispatcher;
- View the fire condition of the building areas in a detailed, as well as a general plan, which are displayed on the controller's console in text and graphic format.
Features of design and calculation
Designing an OPS is the main stage on which the effective operation of the entire system depends. Such work should be done by professionals, since it is a complex scheme with a number of calculations, a significant number of devices and their location. However, since they are all connected by a cable, it is therefore necessary to design a trajectory for further laying. In addition, it is necessary to take into account the possible nuances that are being developed in the project to eliminate emerging threats.
However, the development of an OPS project is a subjective process, since each object should be carefully studied taking into account the features of use, as well as plans. And it is necessary to assess:
- Complexities of construction;
- The size of rooms;
- Specificity of planning.
Attention should also be given to places with the most likely occurrence of the outbreak. The design of the OPS is carried out taking into account the PUE, as well as the DSTU. The project includes a huge number of different works:
- Terms of Reference, which takes into account all the wishes of the client;
- Study of premises;
- Creation of a standard project with all estimated estimates for the work;
- After agreeing all the nuances with the client, all documents and estimates are signed;
- Installation and validation of the OPS.
In the process of preparing for the installation of alarms, it is necessary to carry out a lot of calculations, thanks to which you can choose the most ideal form of the device and at the same time avoid additional expenses, for example, with maintenance of the detectors or installation of the system.
The most important stage of calculations is to determine the ideal capacitance for the energy source itself. In other words, it is necessary to decide what type of power supply is most suitable for connecting detectors. As a source can act not only batteries, but also ordinary batteries.
The required capacity of the source is usually indicated in the operating instructions manual of the fire alarm. Therefore, it is necessary to check the value on the battery case with the available information in the instruction manual. If the power supply is not enough, then buy a more powerful device. If you connect several batteries, you need to make sure they are the same voltage.
Also, check the required cross-section of the wires for the OPS and pay attention to the characteristics of the battery capacity for different operating modes (alarms, waiting). Next, you need to summarize these values, after which you get the total battery capacity of your OPS.
Types of systems
To date, there is a huge number of different fire alarms of every possible level of complexity. However, they all perform one function - they control the protected object using detectors. Most modern fire systems can at a distance transmit a signal to the main security panel and even produce many other service functions. But their main task is the timely detection of fire on the territory of the object or illegal penetration. Depending on the method of determining the fire threat, the system can be divided into the following types:
- Conventional. Conventional sensors (manual, thermal, and smoke) are connected to the receiving and controlling devices, which display only the number of their loop. However, they do not transmit the address of the room to the main panel, and also the number.
- The address system operates according to the following principle: the control panel receives data from the detectors, which makes it possible to determine the exact area of occurrence of the fire.
- Address-to-analog signaling is a very effective and reliable device, as the information received falls on the main panel, and then it is analyzed by the main processor. To give an alarm signal or not, the software system decides, and not specifically taken detector.
- The threshold system with radial plumes is the most budgetary, however, its installation will be expensive. In this case, this type of alarm can often give false alarms, so it will be necessary to duplicate the detectors, which will lead to increased costs.
- The modular threshold system is more perfect, since you will track any malfunction on the PC, which means that you can immediately take the necessary measures and fix the problem. The disadvantage is the high price.
The main types of sensors
Fire detectors or sensors are special devices that allow you to capture certain properties of a fire with its initial detection and further prevention. Also, sensors are the main element of the entire alarm system, providing fire safety. The faultlessness of the detector determines, in general, the effective operation of the system, and they are divided into such types as:
Respond to changes in air temperature and can be divided into:
- Threshold detectors have a relatively low efficiency, since they start from 70 degrees. And the high demand for them is due only to low cost.
- Integral detectors can detect ignition on its earliest manifestations. But since they use 2 thermocouples, and the detector itself is equipped with a signal processing system, the cost of such sensors will be much higher.
Use a heat sensor only if the heat is the main sign of a fire.
They help to detect the presence of smoke in the air, and they work according to the principle of scattering of infrared radiation by particles of smoke. The disadvantage of smoke detectors is that they are able to operate even with a significant amount of dust, as well as steam in the room. But meanwhile they are very popular, although smoke detectors are not used in smoking rooms or in heavily dusty rooms.
Only operate from an open flame or a smoldering hearth. They are installed mainly in rooms where there is a possibility of ignition without the initial emission of smoke. They are also able to detect fire in the initial stages, that is, in the absence of most factors, such as temperature changes and smoke. The flame detectors are used in industrial premises characterized by considerable heat exchange and dustiness.
Gas leak detector
These sensors are suitable for a variety of applications, as they react to smoke, heat and even gas in the air. They act on the principle of identifying a number of chemical reactions. These detectors have carbon monoxide particles, and settings that work in automatic mode can determine the ideal temperature of the oxide, with the change of which the signal comes about.
They are able to detect signs of fire immediately in several ways. Basically, these devices, in which there are functions not only of the smoke, but also the thermal sensor, so that you can specifically identify the signs of fire, and then notify people.
Installation and connection of security and fire alarm systems
- You must determine the number of detectors required. And for this you need to know the height of the ceiling of the room, as well as its area. According to the documentation, with a ceiling height of more than, meters and 80 m. you will need one detector, but the safety rules say that even in a small room, a minimum of 2 sensors must be installed. Therefore, it is best to be guided by these norms.
- Where sensors will be installed, it is necessary to designate a place. The distance from the detector to the wall should be about 450 cm, with the gap between the sensors should be approximately 900 cm. This rule is relevant for single-level ceilings with a maximum height of 350 cm. Wall-mounted detectors are installed at a distance of 200 mm from the ceiling.
- On the initially marked places it is necessary to fix the detectors, after which they are connected to the power supply by 2-wire wires. The devices must be connected in series. The resistor is installed in the terminal block of the latest sensor.
- After you connect the last detector, they must be checked for operability. To do this, near the detector it is necessary to hold a flame from a lighted match or candle.
Where and how to install fire sensors
The norms for mounting detectors OPS are liberal enough: between the sensors - it's 9 meters, from the wall meter. However, such placement is made solely for the sake of a comfortable configuration of a particular fire system. In this connection, it can be concluded that the installation and location of the detectors is more complicated.
When installing sensors on the walls, the distance must be at least 200 cm, otherwise they will give a false alarm, because they will be in the "smoke pocket".
The installation of detectors is far away from smoky rooms, where all the corners of the ceiling are smoked. With ceiling beams, the devices are installed not on the inter-beam or side space, but on the lower surfaces.
Sensitivity of the detector depends directly on the remoteness of the source of danger and the entire hemisphere, he does not see. In an empty room, the area controlled by the sensor depends only on the ceiling height.
By the flame:
- Up to 15 sq.m. - from 6 to 9 meters;
- Up to 20 m. - from, up to 6 meters;
- Up to 25 square meters. meters;
- More than 9 meters - it will be impossible to control, since the fire will become a fire, and the sensor itself will not work.
Through the smoke:
- Up to 85 square meters. - this is up to, meters;
- Up to 70 m. - this is from, up to 6 meters;
- Up to 65 m. - this is from 6 to 10 meters;
- Up to 55 square meters. - from 10 meters.
However, accurate calculation of the location of the detectors requires simulation on a PC or a professional.
How does the notification system work?
When the detectors detect a fire, the system automatically alerts people about the fire in automatic mode. The notification systems according to their operating principle, as well as the composition, are divided into:
- Local - a collection of devices that respond to alarms coming from any external sensor. After that, the notification system starts broadcasting the originally recorded text message in the restricted rooms. Such systems typically include a loudspeaker, an amplifier, and a speech processor, but do not have centralized control.
- Centralized - work not only in semi-automatic, but also in automatic mode. Such an alert system transmits an emergency message to certain zones. If necessary, the dispatcher will transmit information from the microphone of the unit or console.
The alarm function is implemented through the output, as well as the input interfaces. For the information to be displayed, alphanumeric and light indicators are applied, as well as audible alarms.
Possible malfunctions after installation
Inadequate prevention is the main cause of malfunctions in fire alarm systems. In other words, we must constantly carry out all preventive work. Very often, smoke detectors fail because they contain a variety of particles and other debris. However, there is a break in the loop or system errors, which also cause malfunctions.
Considering the fire alarm system, the main problems are:
- Failure of the loop;
- Failed date, and also time;
- Electricity supply with interruptions;
- Problems in the phone line or the main module;
- Defective siren;
- Discharged batteries.
Often, a significant damage to the fire alarm brings contaminated and heavily dusty workrooms, high humidity or high temperature. Also, the cause of the failure of the OPS are banal reasons, for example, cable breakage, because of which the alarm can even without ignition, squeak, blink and so on. But the most serious cause of malfunctions is still the intervention of unqualified specialists, amateur performance or the term of operation that is close to completion.
How to remove the fire alarm yourself
If the alarm works for no reason, then it can be completely disabled. The most elementary option is to get power from the sensor (battery) or detach the receiver-control device from the network.
Attention! In this case, the fire alarm will become useless and will not be able to warn you about a real fire.
In addition, many fire alarms are equipped with additional power sources and a button located on the sensor on the front side, which also need to be turned off. When the button is pressed, the device goes into alarm mode, and the audio signal is reset in automatic mode.
Also, the fire alarm is disabled and using a centralized control panel, but for this you need to know the password. If you can not figure out the cause of the device failure, then solve the problem radically - snack the wires, which go to the sensor, but in this case the device will stop working at all and will simply resemble a decorative element.
Video: how to connect OPS yourself
Human security is a priority, and it does not matter whether it is in the workplace or at home. This can be ensured by installing an OPS in combination with other devices. But that the alarm system worked as efficiently as possible, it is necessary to adhere to certain rules for design, installation and operation..