Many residents of high-rise buildings, especially older buildings, can tell what culinary preferences are their neighbors than they indulged themselves to dinner and what was served for lunch. However, we are not talking about telepathy, neighboring menu can be found just by the smell, which is felt in the apartment.
If this happens all the time, therefore, necessary cleaning of ventilation, which has ceased to cope with the functions assigned to it. Our recommendations will help restore normal ventilation in the apartment. Minor blockages can be eliminated independently, but for more complex tasks have to call the professionals.
We'll show you how to construct a ventilation system at home, what are the causes and symptoms of the failure of its work. You will learn how to establish a flow of exhaust air and the supply of fresh. For a visual perception of the article attached photo selections, charts, video.
The content of the article:
- Functionality Ventilation
- Apparatus obschedomovoy ventilation system
- Natural ventilation in the apartment
- The causes of inefficient operation of the hood
- Signs of the urgent need to clean the
- Proveka ventilation licensed services
- Self cleaning ventkanala
- Upgrading the system to improve performance
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The air we breathe in the apartment, but it seems clean. In fact, it absorbs all the smells coming from the kitchen, the carbon monoxide from the stove. It receives particles of dust, lint from clothing, carpets, pet hair.
The air accumulate harmful microorganisms and bacteria that contribute to the development of severe diseases, moisture and vapor coming from the bathroom, become a cause of formation of mold and captured. All this has a negative effect on the indoor climate, it contributes to the appearance of lung diseases, allergies and other ailments.
The ventilation system is designed to collect and exhaust air, clogged with dust, toxic compounds, malicious microorganisms, fats, carbon dioxide and other substances which reduce efficiency and affect the overall physical state
The state of the ventilation holes, channels and equipment must be checked regularly because they tend to become contaminated
The operating principle of the ventilation systems are divided on natural, mechanical and mixed. The mechanical ventilation and mixed varieties happens intensively, they have to be cleaned more often
Ventilation ducts and openings often cleaned mechanically with a hard ruff long-handled
Purging channels and ventilation holes provide the polluted air in the required volume of outflow and inflow in its place fresh air mass
In companies with actively working ventilation outlet heavily polluted air, often resort to purging channels because of their length and complexity to eliminate traffic jams
And mechanically mixed species ventilation systems require regular cleaning of filters and related components
If the room in addition to the ventilation system also has air conditioning, which produces air intake from the street, you need to be cleaned and its channels with frequency specified by the manufacturer
The device of the ventilation system
Check action vent
Control of supply and exhaust system
A method of cleaning ventilation duct
Clean-Out Result ventilation
Purge ventilation shaft at the enterprise
Cleaning equipment ventilyatsiionnogo filters
Cleaning Cassette air conditioner
Avoid negative health effects helps ventilation, which serves several important functions:
- It provides delivery of clean air in the apartment,
- It allows the output from the room odors, dust, bacteria, carbon dioxide and other harmful components;
- regulates the moisture level.
Ventilation is one of the essential utilities of an apartment building. The State Commission will never accept an object that is missing or defective ventilation system.
In case of insufficient air circulation and poorly functioning ventilation, mold and fungus may form on the walls of the room
Apparatus obschedomovoy ventilation system
In-house ventilation is a complex engineering system, its arrangement depends on several factors, among which the most important is the total number of floors of the building.
in high-rise buildings installation of ventilation shafts produced under different schemes, eg:
- Each apartment has its own exhaust duct with access to the roof.
- Exhaust ducts leading from the flats, connected to one horizontal duct, which collects a whole incoming air, and then outputs through the common channel to the roof.
- Exhaust ducts satellites out of the total of each apartment in the mine, which leads to the warm attic, which is used as an intermediate chamber. In the attic there is a large extractor to remove all of the air on the roof.
Ventilation, made by the first scheme is effective for low-rise buildings. It was very common in the old days, when basically built houses not higher than four floors. Construction of such a system requires a lot of space, and its use impractical for tall buildings, so today it is almost never used.
The second scheme is widely used in homes and Khrushchevki 9-16-storey building. In new latest scheme is used most often, which is considered the most efficient ventilation system for high-rise buildings.
The figure shows the four circuits used for arranging exhaust systems in apartment houses. First 3-4 applicable storey buildings, second and third structures are used in 5-9, the fourth scheme - in modern skyscrapers (+)
Natural ventilation in the apartment
There are a number of requirements to be met by ventilation in dwellings.
In accordance with GOST 30494-2011, it should ensure:
- air quality in the room is below acceptable limits (CO2 to 1000 cm3 / m3);
- optimum humidity spaces within 30-60%;
- speed airflows not more than 0.2 m / s.
In apartment buildings using natural ventilation. Each apartment (bathroom, toilet, kitchen, pantry) are exhaust ducts through which exhaust dirty air out of the room. Clean air flows enter the apartment through the vents, slots in windows and doors.
Between floors and interior doors leave small gaps of 1-2 cm so that air can circulate freely around the home
Such a ventilation system used universally applied in the construction of five and nine-storey buildings. In former times the homes installed glass windows, which, due to a large number of slots perfectly coped with its function.
However, in new houses, this scheme is inefficient because Metal window construction tight and not air-permeable. In modern buildings are set forced ventilation system and a variety of Air-exhaust deviceWhich provide optimum performance intrahouse ventilation.
Intake air handling unit can be located just above the double-glazed window, as shown, or on the wall in the vicinity of the window construction
The causes of inefficient operation of the hood
The problems in the exhaust system work are familiar to owners of apartments, built in the Soviet era. Residents of buildings for the most part deprived of the pleasure to be present at the table of neighbors, as new home equipped with modern complexes forced ventilation.
Such systems do not transmit odors in the apartment.
Web, dirt and dust that has accumulated in the exhaust passage, are a major cause of poor air circulation in the room
The reason №1. Reduced effectiveness of the ventilation in older homes, in principle, the process is fairly predictable. The main reason - is banal blockage of the ventilation duct, which eventually accumulated trash, dirt, dust and other waste from the premises.
As a result the outlet opening is narrowed and becomes unable to fully process picks up the dirty air.
In apartment buildings, united by a common shaft ventilation, contamination of individual channels fall within the general building system. Gradually shaft clogged with garbage and can completely clog. A process that lasts for years, may lead to the fact that the operation of the ventilation system will be paralyzed.
This problem can be solved by duct recovery and addressing the root causes of their partial or complete blockage.
Reason №2. Another prerequisite for contributing to the deterioration of air - is the presence in the neighboring apartment powerful cooker hood. However, this is understandable. Intra natural ventilation is designed for air flow rates up to 90 m3/час.
One extractor creates an air flow 1000 m3/ H, of course, suffer from it adjacent ventilation ducts exiting into a common shaft. And if the hood is not one, but every second neighbor? The answer is obvious.
Extractor hood improves the microclimate in a neighbor's kitchen, but also it could have a negative impact on the operation of natural ventilation in the other flats, ventilation-related obschedomovoy mine
Reason №3. Replacement of wooden windows with metal and plastic, too, is a factor that negatively affects the efficiency of the ventilation system. Tightness is not always inherent in modern windows, plays into the hands of residents of old houses.
In Soviet times, everyone is cursing the builders, admits mistakes in the installation of windows and doors. As it turned out today, "guilty" to work strictly according to instructions for the benefit of residents, as for full functioning natural ventilation slit requires that existed in the old wooden in excess windows.
The openings provide a constant inflow of fresh air from outside, and sealed metal-plastic constructions its opposite overlap. As a result of increased humidity in the room, the windows fog up on the walls formed by mold and fungus.
Modern windows can not provide a complete air exchange in a multi-storey apartment house, which uses a natural ventilation system. Misted windows show excessive moisture areas and the need for mechanical ventilation devices
reason №4. To a large extent the work of the ventilation system depends on the season. Most often, stretch problems manifest themselves in the hot season, while the exhaust hatch winter functioning properly.
The fact that the effectiveness of a natural ventilation system is directly dependent on the difference in temperature inside and outside the building.
In summer, temperatures on the street and the apartment is almost the same, so there are problems. According to the old building codes it was assumed that in a hot air circulation will be provided by airing the room windows open.
Signs of the urgent need to clean the
The above reasons for the poor performance of the ventilation say one thing - the system requires constant monitoring and periodic cleaned yet.
Understand that the vent is required to clean the can by the following features:
- near the exhaust holes formed dust, cobwebs, debris has accumulated;
- ventilation grille covered with a black coating, soot and grease;
- in summer, the apartment has become a very fast heat up;
- After wet cleaning after a short time the dust reappears;
- drafts occurring in the apartment when you open the front door, have become much weaker than before.
To completely make sure that ventilation is necessary to clean, can be also check each vent. Make it pretty easy with improvised means. When checking the rod is necessary that at least one of the air vents in the apartment was open.
Such a lattice is clearly said that the ventilation in the apartment is practically not working, and the exhaust port requires urgent cleaning
Homemade ways to check the efficiency of ventilation ducts:
- Bring to the ventilation grating a burning candle, lighter or lit match. If the channel is present good traction, the flame will be directed toward the exhaust. Fire burning evenly, shows a lack of ventilation.
- Take a sheet of paper or a piece of paper and attach to the opening. During normal operation of the ventilation system, the paper attracted to the grid, and it does not fall.
If you find that ventilation does not work at all or work very badly, you must clean it. Cleaning ventilation channels in the apartment building produces specialized services. In their arsenal there Facilities for inspection and cleaning air ducts.
But if there was a necessity, a duct section, each tenant can clean the house yourself.
Checking rod using an open fire, you must be extremely careful not to accidentally burn the cobwebs and accumulated debris inside the vent. This applies especially to the inhabitants of gasified houses where fire may occur due to a gas leak in an apartment entrance
Proveka ventilation licensed services
The ventilation system is the common house property, for its maintenance and safe operation of the responsible management company. The Government Ordinance № 410 developed rules to be followed when implementing CC inspection and cleaning of ventilation ducts intrahouse.
According to the Rules of chimneys and ventilation checks, as well as their treatment should be carried out by specialized companies that have a license. Testing is performed for any reconstruction or repair system and if no traction is detected.
Diagnosis suction channel operation is performed by a special device - an anemometer that measures and analyzes the airflow rate
Frequency of routine inspection - three times a year (before, after and in the middle of the heating season). Specialists have a professional equipment that they produce health check of the ventilation system.
To clean dirt used pneumonic brush machine. Moreover channels carried disinfection.
Self cleaning ventkanala
In spite of the existing rules, many management companies over the years did not appear in the apartments of residents to check the efficiency of the ventilation system. Therefore, residents of high-rise buildings forced to periodically carry out diagnostics and treatment of its exhaust vents themselves.
At low pollution exhaust openings can achieve results using a conventional brush
The sunroof can be cleaned with little pollution, but if dirt accumulated in it over the years, it is better to call professionals.
Self purification is carried out as follows:
- Read the ventsWell they are cleaned from dirt and dust and washed under running water.
- Ventkanala clears wallTo which access is obtained. To use a metallic or wire brush.
- purify hole of debris with a vacuum cleaner.
Actually that's all the homework for cleaning air vents to an end. If you hear an apartment in the duct is present reverse thrust and smells of the neighbors - you can replace the old ventilation grille with check valve model.
If they have not led to the desired result, and the rod in the channel remained at the same level, it means there is a total blockage of the mine. This is the work of the special services, which can be accessed through the Criminal Code.
Licensed companies use professional equipment and special treatment technology, which are chosen after a thorough examination of the channel and given its current state
Upgrading the system to improve performance
In old houses mechanical cleaning of the ventilation shaft even specialized services does not always bring the desired effect. However, to enhance circulation of air in the flat can. There are several readily available ways to improve ventilation.
If you decide to replace the old wooden windows with modern design made of metal, choose windows, equipped with micro-ventilation function. If you purchased the usual plastic window, they can install additional devices that provide fresh air from outside.
For example, there valves, ventsYou can purchase additional special hardware that enables tightly closing windows.
Accessories for multi-stage ventilation will allow to organize a more effective ventilation in the apartment
Strengthen air circulation in the room by specific supply and exhaust fans. There are windows, and pripotolochnye wall unit. The toilet and the bathroom can be install an exhaust fan directly at the inlet to the vent instead of the grille.
Solve the problem of bathroom ventilation will help the organization forced exhaust system, which performs the functions of a conventional fan
The fan is powered by the mains, it can be connected to a common switch and then it will be included with the light. It is possible to carry out an additional line and connect the device to a separate switch for it to work autonomously.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
As a self-check operation of ventilation in the apartment, you can see from the video of the plot:
What if the home does not work ventilation recovery exhaust channel performance:
How is the professional cleaning of ventilation shafts in apartment buildings:
Ventilation plays a key role in ensuring safe living in an apartment. Carefree attitude to this system and disregard for the rules of care can lead to health problems, and even more serious consequences can result for the residents of gasified houses.
It is therefore necessary to monitor the state of ventilation and, if necessary, contact the specialist services.
If you have experience in the ventilation duct apartment Clearing Clogs, please share the information with our readers. Leave comments and ask questions on the topic in the form below.