How to make wiring and lighting in the garage without errors
Run the wiring in the garage and connect the lighting with your own hands quite simply. To do everything without mistakes, the master must have the skills of working with electricity, schemes and instructions.
1How to perform wiring in the garage by yourself
- 1.1How to create a schema
- 1.2Elements that will be required for all work
- 1.3Calculation of quantity of materials
1.4The sequence of actions for the installation of electrical wiring in the garage
- 1.4.1Video: how to install the wiring in the garage by yourself
- 1.5Preparatory work to be done
- 1.6How to perform outdoor wiring
- 1.7How to perform wiring inside a building of this type
- 2How to perform pit lighting
- 3Lighting in the garage with a tape with LEDs: pluses and minuses, photo
- 4Safety recommendations
How to perform wiring in the garage by yourself
Garage is not only a place to store a vehicle, but also a workshop, an auxiliary room, a storage place for various attachments, spare parts and other structures. Therefore it is important to perform high-quality lighting in this room. In most cases, the "electric set" of similar structures includes the following elements:
- lighting devices located in various zones and functioning due to individual switches;
- Design for lighting pit or basement;
- several outlets that can provide power to the electrical receivers.
The cost of installing electricity, performed by a master, can entail a large financial costs. However, if you yourself conduct electricity inside the garage, the master will only need to connect the garage to the common electrical network.
In the garage room occasionally there are guests, so the starting point for the installation of electrical wiring are such criteria as safety and multifunctionality. Appearance goes to the background. Many people are interested in hidden wiring in the garage. It's worth knowing that this type of wiring is done because of security, not appearance. The electrical cable inside the walls, in case of a hidden arrangement, will be reliably protected from possible mechanical damage. If the walls of the building are made of sheet steel, then concealed wiring is not allowed. In this case, you will need to use metal hoses, corrugated pipes or various boxes that reduce the risk of external interference on the electrical cable.
To increase the safety of work with electrical devices, a grounding structure must be installed at the input to the distribution panel. A simple grounding option is the following:
- Rods of metal with a diameter of 14-15 mm will need to be vertically dug into the soil.
- The parts should be joined together by a metal strip.
The resistance of such a design will be less than 4 ohms.
The garage is a damp room, and its walls conduct current. Therefore, the structure is considered dangerous. Sockets and lighting fixtures are suitable for class IP44.
If there is a desire to create a full-fledged workshop, you will need to take care of the three-phase wiring first. It will be necessary to use an electric cable with copper conductors and a cross-sectional area of 6-8 mm2. The switchboard should be suitable for more than 20 modules.
If you plan to equip the pit, then you need to use the following scheme:
Before installing a three-phase system, you will need to obtain a permit in Energosbyt. All items must be strictly observed.
How to create a schema
To avoid errors during the installation, you will need to prepare a wiring diagram in the garage - drawing, on which details the locations of outlets, devices for shutdown, power cable, etc. It is important to follow the following rules:
- In the scheme, you will need to accurately schedule all the locations of the connected devices.
- Elements should be attached to each other by straight lines, which are located at a right angle. The connection must begin with the electrical board for distribution.
- The track can run vertically or horizontally along the walls. Rotation can be done only at a right angle.
- It will be necessary to note the methods of connecting each part. Devices for switching off with lighting devices must be connected in series. The socket must be placed in front of the switch.
- The distance from the cable to the ceiling structure must be at least 110 mm, from the outlet to the floor base - a minimum of 500 mm. The general device for switching off is located on the right side of the input at an altitude of 1600 mm.
- To avoid mechanical damage, wiring should be carried out at a distance of 110-150 mm from the ceiling and heating pipes.
An example of a wiring diagram in a garage room can be seen in the figure below:
Then the scheme must be transferred to the walls. Precise straight lines are applied with a cord, which should be dipped in the paint.
Elements that will be required for all work
In the next step, you will need to prepare the elements that will be needed to install electrical wiring in a building of this type. Be sure to prepare the following equipment:
- perforator (if the walls of the building are made of concrete);
- a hammer;
- pliers with insulated handles;
- devices for measuring electricity;
- insulating tape;
- side cutters;
- building gypsum;
- electric drill.
The main element of the wiring is the electric cable. It is best to use a wire with copper wires, but it is allowed to use aluminum products. The latter have lower conductive characteristics. In addition, you will need to buy corrugated pipes, assembly and installation box, sockets, lighting devices, down transformers, switches and various adapters.
Calculation of quantity of materials
After the wiring diagram is created, you will need to calculate the required number of materials. First of all, you need to calculate the amount of wire. Wiring will be both internal and external, so you need to buy materials for all types of work. To install internal electrical wiring, use copper conductors. A cable with aluminum strands is not recommended, as it is often subjected to mechanical stress.
To correctly calculate the wire cross section, you should determine which electrical devices will be used. The total power of all devices is multiplied by a power reserve of 20%. For sockets in a garage room, veins with a cross section of more than 4 m2 are suitable. Devices for switching off a cable with a cross section, mm2.
The length should be taken with a margin, since the cable will need to be cut into several parts. Each connection must have a margin of 12-15 cm.
Accordingly, if there is, for example, a small garage with a size of 5x, m, then the approximate amount of wire is 14 m. If the garage measures x, m, then about 30 m of cable is needed.
Sockets should be several. Today, LED and luminescent lighting devices are popular. The first option is economical and durable, however its installation will require large financial investments.
The sequence of actions for the installation of electrical wiring in the garage
In order to install wiring in a similar building without errors, it is worth to look at the instruction in the format of video recording.
Video: how to install the wiring in the garage by yourself
The video of the wiring process in the garage room will give you an intuitive instruction:
The process of electrification of a room of this type can be conditionally divided into 2 stages:
- Installation of external wiring from the power line to the entrance to the building.
- Installation of wiring inside the garage.
If there is no experience in doing such work, then external work is recommended to entrust to specialists who have access to work with high voltage.
Before the electricity is posted to the garage, it will be necessary to reconcile the scheme with the Energy Supervision Authority.
Preparatory work to be done
You need to cut the cable and prepare the walls. Cutting should be done taking into account a stock of 10 cm for each joint. Further the walls will need to be placed according to the prepared scheme. A marking cord is required to perform the job. With the help of this device, the layout is the simplest. It will be necessary to fix the cord in the initial position, then extend it to the branch or the end point of the electrical wiring.
The next step is to pull the cord along the wall, take it to the side and release it sharply. In the end, there must be an imprint on the wall. The main task is to fix the rope vertically or horizontally. The trace must match the markings in the drawing. You can also use a plumb line or a marking level.
After the markup is done, it will be necessary to make the shtroby under the wiring.
This option is most often used when performing wiring in a garage room made of concrete. For shtrobleniya you can use an electric drill, a Bulgarian or a puncher. In extreme cases, you can do with a chisel and a hammer. The maximum depth of the Strobl - 2 cm. The thickness should be chosen based on the section of the vein.
If the walls of the garage are made of bricks, the harness can be hidden in the seams between the rows.
During the preparation work, it will be necessary to ground.
How to perform outdoor wiring
There are 2 methods of transferring electricity from the pillar to the building: through the air and underground. The choice should be made on the basis of how close the garage is to other residential buildings. If the garage room is located at a distance of more than 26 m from the power line, then to install the wire through the air will need the installation of several poles. The height of the electrical cable can be:
- near the building - more, m;
- above the road - more than 7 m;
- over the sidewalks for pedestrians - more, m.
Entering the line through the air is made through the wall at a height of at least, m. For this, from the outside of the building to special hooks will need to fix the insulators so that the distance between the wires is at least, m.
The gaps in the wall under the input of the electric cable must be drilled with a slope outwards. This will make it possible to prevent moisture from entering the room.
Before entering the building of an electrical cable, it is necessary to make insulation with pipes made of rubber or plastic. After that, all gaps should be filled with alabaster or cement mixture.
Owners of low buildings often wonder: how to perform wiring in a building whose height is less than, m? Can I get permission from Energonadzor for such a scheme? The entry of electricity into the low-rise garage can be done with the help of a pipe-resistant. Visually this can be seen in the figure below:
The pipe is a tube made of steel, the upper part of which is bent by 180 ° and equipped with a receiving insulator. This design allows you to enter the wire even through the roof. The tubing can be fixed to the rafters.
Another method of electrifying the garage is underground. In this case, you will need to place the electrical cable under the ground and protect it with a steel box. In the building, the wire can be inserted through the groove in the base. The cable that passes through the opening point must be protected by a tube.A separate groove must be prepared for each cable.
The sequence of actions will be as follows:
- First of all, you need to excavate the foundation pit from the central power line to the distribution board.
- Further in the trench should be placed a protected cable from copper. It is recommended to use a WBH cable.
- At the base, you need to leave the input groove for entry into the interior.
- To protect the product from damage, it is best to immerse it in a steel box, on top of which you will need to lay a rubber band.
- Under the base line, it is necessary to protect the tube, the diameter of which is 2 times larger than the cross-section of the core.
- On the outside, the tube should go out at most 5 cm.
The process of putting the electric cable into the garage room through the base is shown in the figure below:
At the end of the work, the wizard who is installing the wiring should bring the electrical cable to the lead-in box with the meter.
How to perform wiring inside a building of this type
Wiring inside the garage can be open or hidden.
During the implementation of concealed wiring, it is important to ensure that after the surface finish there are no protruding sections.
In constructions made of metal or wood, it is rather difficult to perform concealed installation, therefore, for such structures, the method of open wiring is actual. In this case, the electrical cable must be fixed on the baseboard or in a box of plastic or aluminum. For open wiring, the following types of flat cable are recommended:
You can also use unarmored cable.
The sequence of actions for the installation of the electric cable:
- On the wall the wire is fixed with brackets of tin, nails or dowels.
- Step of fastening should be a maximum, m.
- The wiring is carried out horizontally, at a distance of 20 cm from the ceiling structure.
- The box should be glued or screwed with screws.
In buildings made of stone or brick, hidden wiring is often performed. All work is recommended to be done before the walls are plastered. In this case, you only need to monitor the correct installation of equipment. The extreme parts of the box must not look out for distribution.
If the post is done after finishing the surface, then it will be necessary to prepare small grooves in the walls. In them it is necessary to lay the wires, fix them with nails and seal the base.
Difference of the hidden method of wiring installation is the need to unscrew the ends of the cable, which should be connected. This allows to exclude their damage and disconnection. After performing this work, you need to fix the fixation points with electrical tape.
Actions to be performed at the final stage:
- In the end, you will need to install the junction boxes, as well as connect the sockets and switches.
- All the conductors should be connected, then perform a wire wiring with a multimeter.
- The connection is made exclusively by means of terminal blocks.
It is recommended to take a photo of the wiring before completing the finishing work.This will provide an opportunity to quickly find the location of the faulty part of the power grid.
How to perform pit lighting
Every car owner wants to have a pit in the garage. The basement is an integral part of this building. Without devices for lighting will not work.
Portable devices can not be connected, as the rooms are very humid. Therefore, the maximum possible voltage is 42 V. To install the wiring will be necessary device to reduce.
Lighting devices should be designed for a small voltage.
Lighting in the garage with a tape with LEDs: pluses and minuses, photo
LED strip is a flexible tape with a self-adhesive base, inside of which there are LED light bulbs. It should be connected to a 12 V or 24 V power supply. The thickness of the product is 2-3 mm, width - 10-20 mm. To one power supply unit in most cases one reel is connected. If you want to connect a long length element, you will need to prepare several power supplies or a device for amplification.
The LED strip can have a color temperature from 2800 K to 9000 K. The first option has a dull yellow tint, it is not recommended to use it for a garage. Cold bright light is needed, so the color temperature should be from 6000 K to 8000 K.
The tape is easy to connect. In the lower part there is an adhesive base, so it can be attached to the base of wood or metal. If the wall is painted, then the tape can be easily glued to it. As a radiator, a metal profile can be used.
Most often used LED strip type SMD 3528 or SMD 5050.
The main advantages of LED lamps are the following:
- low power consumption;
- long service life;
- minimum heating;
- bright lighting.
The disadvantage is that such designs are expensive.
To calculate the appropriate number of LED lighting devices for garage lighting, use the formula: O = M x P / K, where O - lighting, M - the power of the device for lighting on 1 m2, P - the area of the garage room, K - the number of lighting devices.
On 1 m2 of the garage area there should be 4 W of power LED lamps.
To connect LED lighting, you will need to prepare the following items:
- Power Supply;
- LED Strip Light;
- light diffuser.
The sequence of installation steps is as follows:
- LED strips of well-known manufacturers are equipped with special connectors, which are connected to the corresponding connectors in the power supply.
- Then tape should be pasted on the ceiling or walls of the garage in two rows. Preliminary surface should be cleaned and degreased.
- At the end, a light diffuser is installed. An unused fluorescent lamp bulb fits.
The lighting should be the same in all positions.
It is important to consider the following recommendations:
- Perform any work on the restoration and replacement of electrical wiring allowed only in the case of complete lack of voltage.
- It is recommended to wear comfortable shoes that do not obstruct movement.
- Electrical appliances must be intact, without a damaged cable. The connection must be qualitative.
- Handles on the instrument must be insulated.
- If you plan to perform work at a high altitude, you will need to prepare a platform. Use of drums, foam blocks, chairs on tables and other structures is not allowed.
- All work should be done slowly.
The work should be handled responsibly, as the correct installation of electrical wiring in the garage space ensures its uninterrupted operation for 30 years. The slightest mistake can lead to the breakdown of the entire electrical network. If there is a hidden wiring, you will need to perform heavy repairs. Accordingly, if there is no work experience, then it is recommended to invite highly qualified specialists.
For the work will need the help of a specialist who can bring electricity from the pole to the electrical panel, connect a transformer, an electric meter and devices for shutdown. Do without the call of the master will not work, as for the external branch of the wire from the central power line you need to have a license to carry out work with increased voltage.
The technology of installation of electrical wiring differs significantly from the version with a private house or apartment. It is recommended to pay the experienced master, that after the termination of the cable connection, he helped check the quality of the fastening of wires and the correctness of the work performed. The amount will be small, but you will not have to worry about security..