Well - one of the most affordable ways to supply suburban area. He gives life-giving water for the natural needs of the household, their domestic use and watering plants in the area. And because the water is to be devoid of any kind of impurities. From contamination should immediately get rid of. Do you agree?
From our proposed article, you'll learn what steps include purification of water from the well, and whether it can hold its own. We will tell, on what grounds is determined by water pollution. Will present in detail effective ways to eliminate mineral and organic impurities.
The content of the article:
- The main causes of contamination of well water
The main signs of water contamination
- Turbidity and appearance precipitate
- Changing the natural color
- The appearance of a strange smell
- Unusual taste of water
- Analysis of the quality of well water
Efficient purification methods
- Mechanical cleaning of mine
- Execution of works on disinfection
- Application metering cartridges
- An alternative purification method with ultraviolet
- Prevention of water pollution
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
The main causes of contamination of well water
Opinion that well water is clear a priori, is erroneous. The depth of this water source is not so great. The groundwater that fed well, impurities are often present in a dissolved or suspended state.
The vadose often inhabit different kinds of bacteria that multiply, creating a colony and eventually decompose to form hydrogen sulfide compounds. These compounds give the water an unpleasant smell and make it toxic, and therefore hazardous to human health.
Well water due to their surface nature more prone to external contamination, and may contain dissolved organic chemicals and impurities
The reasons that trigger water pollution, are divided into two types:
- natural phenomena. These may be changes in the aquifers that supply source, or seasonal events. For example: entering into a source of organic matter, sunlight ...
- The problems provoked by man. Arise in violation mounting technology installations and errors in its operation. For example: the proximity of septic tanks, depressurization joints, metal corrosion ...
At arrangement of hydraulic structure is important to monitor the water renewal. Thus, when an irregular fence it will stagnate and become cloudy. If power headroom is open, it can freely fall leaves and twigs, insects and rodents.
Decomposing organic contaminates well water by modifying its chemical and biological properties, thereby making it unsuitable for drinking
If the well is set to quicksand, the chances of having a high water content of colloidal impurities, and organic chemicals. All these processes are necessary to control and eliminate the time.
All of the reasons for clouding and yellowing of well water will be available in next article.
The main signs of water contamination
study of water from the well should be done annually as part of its underground source, depending on seasonal changes and other external factors may change constantly.
This is especially important if the source used only in summer. The need for purification of water from the well indicate a number of signs.
Loss of water clarity, the appearance of organic sludge and brown hue signal the need to be cleaned
Algae make water unfit for human consumption on the manhole walls not only drink, but also for hygienic purposes
When sand, rust flakes and silt in water necessary to clean the water and the bottom of the filter
Necessarily need to be cleaned if the well were foreign objects, tools, etc.
Turbid water with organic sediment
Algae on the manhole walls
A large sand content in water
When you need cleaning well water
How to take away the water from the well and deliver the sample to the analysis detailed in Article provided by us.
Turbidity and appearance precipitate
The opacity of the water indicates that within the walls of buildings there are too many small particles of silt and suspended silt grains. This occurs if the well ring lost due to leaks or erosion of sutures displacement elements relative to each other.
A clear sign disorders design wall tightness is turbidity after precipitation of heavy rains. It helps to eliminate the lack of mechanical cleaning of mine, complementing the work of grouting and sealing joints.
Subsequently, for the prevention of pollution set cartridge or strainers that will catch and accumulate debris at the bottom of the construction
The appearance of the water surface oil film indicates the presence of oil. This may occur as a result of mine depressurization. Or, for the banal reason of inadequate compliance with the purity of the operation of the hydraulic structure.
Changing the natural color
Shade of water in the well depends on the type of contamination. Change the color to green indicates the "flowering" of water. The reason for this may be getting into the mine to direct sunlight.
Under the influence of sunlight rays microorganisms and algae begin to actively proliferate, forming numerous colonies
The problem is solved by using a water purification chemicals and subsequent installation of charcoal filters.
Brown and yellow shades indicate that the high content of iron in the water. Disinfection in this case is not effective. To solve the problem only helps improvement of water treatment system and installation of additional filters.
The black color of water are organic contaminants, which in the process of decomposition and putrefaction infect it. To eliminate the decaying organic matter easy disinfection source It is not enough. To get the water that can be consumed, it is necessary to perform a multi-stage cleaning.
The appearance of a strange smell
Clay or earthy smell due to the presence in a liquid of natural organic compounds such as 2-metilizoborneol and geosmin. They are formed during the life of soil bacteria present in water and blue-green algae.
It helps to eliminate the cause of the mechanical cleaning of buildings, followed by household furnishing and installing reverse osmosis filters, equipped with activated carbon.
The smell of rotten eggs is the water in which the bacteria are present sulfurnye. They produce hydrogen sulfide.
Remove these bacteria is possible by carrying out disinfection of water using chlorine or potassium permanganate and the subsequent installation of the filtration unit
The smell of phenol and other unnatural fragrances indicate that through the underground aquifers in the mine pit is likely to hit the waste water and other products of human activity. Problem can be solved by means of mechanical scrapers and install the carbon filter.
Unusual taste of water
Salty flavor appears because of an increased salt content: NaSO4, NaCl, MgSO4. Remove it can by performing additional purification of water by passing it through home reverse osmosis.
Metallic taste indicates the presence of iron in the water. Help remedy the situation methods of iron removal. For example, the compressor installation, which will saturate the water with oxygen, the circulation pump and filter obezzhelezivateli.
Sour taste of water, having a blue-green tint, said carbon dioxide content is high. Such phenomenon occurs due to the reaction of water when in contact with copper and bronze system elements.
Increased rigidity of said composition in the presence of salts of calcium and magnesium liquid. Rigidity is not constant. It varies depending on the season and reaches its peak in the summer.
The cause of the stiffness may become alkaline earth metals that are often found in limestone and dolomite deposits
Rectify the situation can install softening systems. Demineralized water and soften reagent capable reagentless and complex purification filters.
Analysis of the quality of well water
These "signs" point to serious water pollution. And until such time as it will not be cleared, the construction is not recommended to be used. To find out the cause of the pollution and find the best solution to fix the problem, it is necessary to select the water sample and deliver them for analysis.
The sequence of performing an action if fence fluids for research:
- Plastic or glass container in a volume of 1.5 liters was thoroughly washed with running water, without using for this purpose detergents. Sample collection is perfect for a plastic bottle from under mineral or distilled water.
- Capacity is gradually filled with water so that excessive pressure in the bottle is not formed an excess of oxygen. If the well been established from automatic water supplying system, the tap water is preliminarily emptied and then fill and low pressure to the bottle neck.
- Filled container tightly closed and wrapped in dark plastic bag.
- Within three hours from the time of sampling the liquid container is delivered to the laboratory.
Keep in mind that after two days from the moment of sampling fluid results are already unreliable.
For lack of opportunity immediately deliver sampling in the laboratory, it is possible to extend the life of the "pattern" by placing it on 2 days in the refrigerator
To perform the analysis of the water quality will not work. Accurate results can not be achieved without the use of special equipment.
Investigations of this kind engaged in:
- government laboratories at geodesic centers;
- licensed private centers;
- Rospotrebnadzor accredited laboratory.
Price of the service depends on the type of analysis. It can be cut, oriented to identify certain groups of substances or full, including chemical and microbiological testing.
Organoleptic quality of drinking water from the well, with acceptable parameters will be shown in the general table
The results are entered into the protocol, which indicate the allowable percentage of impurities and substances in accordance with the sanitary regulations. To conclude the protocol is applied to the suitability of water and the presence therein of potentially hazardous microorganisms and substances.
If desired, assistants may also give guidance on how best to purify the water in the well and any particular filtration system further use.
Efficient purification methods
If the results of the study showed that the fears are not groundless, and the water contains impurities harmful to health, it should be possible to correct the situation faster.
The choice of method depends on the causes of pollution. If debris has accumulated inside the building, and on the walls of slime formed in the purification design should be applied mechanically.
Mechanical cleaning of mine
The method involves purifying the walls and bottom of a hydraulic structure, by washing or scraping the accumulated accretions. mechanical cleaning perform better in late summer or early spring until the snow melts. In the offseason, has the lowest level of the groundwater.
The accumulated sludge and slime should be cleaned regularly, as they are ideal breeding ground for bacteria which in vital process emit toxic substances
mechanical cleaning procedure involves several stages:
- bailing. Before performing a mechanical cleaning structure previously emptied, pumping out the fluid drain pump. Keep in mind that fully drain the pit mine does not work, the bottom will still be a small amount of water.
- Purification of the walls and bottom. An employee who performs clean, dressed in a protective suit, is lowered into the well. Assistant remains on the surface and takes the filled bucket. Rubbish and sludge residues are removed by hand using a wire brush or a conventional scraper. Rubble and sand, carpeting the bottom of the plant and carrying out of the bottom of the filter function is replaced with a new one.
- Repair and reinforcement of manhole rings. Where necessary to prevent displacement of the rings relative to each other, their reinforcing metal straps.
- sealing. Upon detection of cracks in the seams between the rings defects sealed with cement mortar in which waterglass is added.
when replacing bottom filter crushed stone can be used instead of natural sorbents type shungite or zeolite. They not only mineralized water, but also well protect it from heavy metals and oil products. The thickness of the newly lined with a layer should not be less than 15 cm.
Regardless of the depth of the mine during its cleaning it is important to observe safety measures: to work with a partner and to use the safety rope
Execution of works on disinfection
Disinfection of water produced upon completion of the mechanical cleansing and eliminating leaks in the joints. It is accomplished by applying the solution on the walls of buildings fur brush roller or broad. For this purpose, use bleach.
To prepare a 2% solution, bleach diluted with water at the rate of 1 l water 20 g of a powder. When using pure chlorine solution of desired concentration is prepared by diluting the powder at the rate of 3-5 g per 1 liter of water.
For the preparation of a disinfectant solution used enamel or glass dish, filling to capacity first cold water and then mound chloro or lime
The prepared solution was infused over 1-2 hours in a sealed vessel under cover. The supernatant was poured into another container. Rising to the surface of the top layer and is used for disinfection.
Disinfection with chlorine well operate in the following sequence:
- Single 2% solution with a wide brush, or roller is applied to the inner wall of the well, coating them evenly across the surface. Residues of the preparation is treated with a bottom filter.
- After application a well is filled with water. The poured water is added a new portion of the solution, but is already prepared in the proportion 1: 5.
- Solution filled into the well, mixed thoroughly with a long pole or by alternately scooping bucket liquid followed by pouring it back.
- Neck treated with water and filled the well covered with a lid with plastic wrap and leave at night. This is necessary for the reason that the chlorine tends to quickly evaporate. Chlorine to give the desired effect it is important to maintain the coolness of mine.
- After waiting 24 hours, the chlorinated water is pumped out of the well and waiting for its filling. The next day, the decontamination procedure is performed repeatedly.
Per cubic meter takes an average of 500 grams of solution.
The required amount of the solution to calculate the rate of water treatment, the volume of the ring height of 90 cm with a diameter of 1 meter is 700 liters
Water subjected to cleaning, can not be used. Before the introduction of facilities in operation will have to empty the well and wait for it to fill "from scratch". If the water content in the chlorine odor is present, it will have to repeat the procedure. Within 5-7 days after completion of the chlorination is subjected to boiling water.
If we consider the other available means, the disinfection facilities can also be performed using the same potassium permanganate. To this potassium permanganate diluted in water at the rate of 1 teaspoon of the powder per 10 liters of fluid. The solution is poured into the pit with water.
Step 1: Before carrying out measures for the disinfection of water sources made mine cleaning
Step 2: After cleaning, renovations are: recovering sealed seams, performed waterproofing
Step 3: A disinfecting composition was prepared by the water source, strictly observing the proportions recommended by the manufacturer
Step 4: The prepared composition is poured into the well to disinfect the available water in it
Step 5: Water was introduced into it with disinfecting solution is pumped out of it, after the composition of time recommended by the manufacturer
Step 6: disinfected well water is pumped up until out of the well will not be pumped clear water
Step 7: In order to keep the water from the solution did not penetrate back into the aquifer to the pump it is necessary to connect the hose and bring it into the reserve capacity
Step 8: On completion of disinfection of the well take a water sample and carry it to conduct research in SES
Cleaning disinfection of the well prior to performing
Repair of joints and problem areas
Preparation composition for disinfection
The introduction of the disinfectant composition into the well
Disinfection of water intake
Submersible pump for pumping water
Retraction of dirty water from the area
Well with purified water
After waiting for hours, emptying the well and wait for it to be filled again. After cleaning, the shaft is lowered a small pouch of synthetic fabric sewed and filled with potassium permanganate. It should be left in the well on a consistent basis.
The sale also meet special chlorine-containing drugs such as "Akvatabs", "septuplets-DHC", "Ekobriz-Oxy". They are available in liquid, powder or tablet form.
On the basis of these concentrates in accordance with instruction diluted disinfectant solutions that use this technology, and that when working with bleach. Any of these agents improves the water quality and extends the life of the structure.
Application metering cartridges
In case of heavy pollution of water, when simple cleaning methods do not give the desired result, experts recommend to use more drastic measures - use dispensing cartridges.
Dispensing cartridges are a small ceramic container of cylindrical shape, inside which is placed a mixture based bleach and calcium hydrochloride
Cartridges housing volume from 250 to 1000 cm3Made of ceramic, porous walls wherein the active chlorine in the water is passed freely. Quantity required for disinfection cartridges depends on the volume of water in the mine and its degree of pollution.
Disinfection using dispensing cartridges should be done under the guidance of SES employees controlling the water quality regarding microbiological and sanitary-chemical indicators.
Containers are hung in the well shaft immersing into the water column and placed at a height of 20 to 50 cm from the bottom surface of the filter. Control of the concentration of active substance in water is carried through 6 hours after immersion cartridge. It should be 0.5 mg / l. If performance is below the required, bury another cartridge.
In the future control of the concentration is performed every seven days. Cartridges are replaced at intervals of every 3-4 weeks.
An alternative purification method with ultraviolet
Disinfect the contents of the well can be performed by irradiating it with ultraviolet light. This method is less labor-intensive, but more expensive. UV disinfection is performed only after prior mechanical cleaning.
The unit is a decontamination chamber, inside which is placed an ultraviolet lamp equipped with a protective coating
UV rays whose wavelength range is 200-295 nm, capable of destroying pathogens. The higher the radiation dose, the less time is needed for the decontamination shaft content. For the destruction of most pathogenic bacteria have enough radiation dose of 15 mJ \ cm².
The main advantage of water treatment by irradiation with ultraviolet light is that it does not cause a change of taste qualities of drinking water.
Prevention of water pollution
Cleaning and disinfection of water in the well requires a lot of time and effort. To minimize the occurrence of this kind of trouble in the future, do not forget to carry out preventive disinfection measures.
Prevent contamination of water in the well will exercise a few simple rules:
- at device waterworks clay take care of the lock device. For this dig a trench around the well width 1.5-2 m and a depth of 50 to 100 cm. It is necessary to fill up with clay and densely compacted. Built earthen castle will perform two functions simultaneously: prevent the penetration of moisture and prevent contamination of buildings through the joints between the rings.
- At the bottom the filter arrangement using flint, which has the property to soften the water, or zeolite protruding natural sorbent.
- Equip the well head of the well cover or canopy. They do not allow to enter the mine dust and small debris, and protect well water from the direct penetration of sunlight.
- To reduce the risk of leaks during the operation of hydraulic structures, use the station with external ejector and a submersible pump design.
Proper arrangement of the water source eliminates the need for frequent work on disinfection.
If your summer cottage there has its own source of water and you have not decided on its type, we suggest reading the article information comparing the well and the wellThat evaluates the pros and cons of both options.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Video review tablet disinfectant Akvabriz:
Video presentation lamps for UV disinfection systems:
Do not expect thunder from a clear sky. After all, water - that's what we use on a daily basis. And that is why it is so important to make sure that it does not contain harmful substances. To protect themselves and their loved ones, do not neglect the rules of operation, and regularly check the composition of the water, even if it seems crystal clear.
We are looking forward to your stories about self-cleaning and disinfection of well water. Please write comments in a dedicated block. Here, ask questions, share experiences, insights and thematic photos.