To get a rich harvest, you need to properly cultivate the land. Potatoes are a capricious crop and require deep plowing of the soil before planting. On the methods and techniques of plowing, as well as the timing of digging potatoes learn in the article.
- When to dig an
- and in the fall
When to dig
potatoes From the moment of planting to the moment of harvest, a certain amount of time must pass. And this time depends on several factors: the selected variety, time of planting the crop, weather conditions. It is difficult to say for sure the exact time.
There is some harvesting dependence: if was planted at the end of April is , then you need to dig it up before the beginning of August .However, according to statistics, a favorable time for planting is the month of May and you need to dig up potatoes in early September. Although, on average, harvest begins in mid-August.
So when digging up potatoes one should know for what purposes the vegetable will be used. If you need fresh potatoes immediately for cooking, then you need to dig it at the end of July .
If the root crop has to be stored for the whole winter, then early collection is not recommended. The rind should become more coarse, otherwise the potato will quickly deteriorate and rot.
External signs of potato ripening
Potatoes are plants that are grown in large quantities relative to other crops. It is important not to miss the time of harvesting and to dig the root crop in time. It is important to be able by external signs to understand that the vegetable is ripe.
The main signs of potato ripening include:
- shrubs dry up, wither and turn yellow ;
- the rind of the dug out potato grows coarse, becomes thicker and badly peeled off( unlike new potatoes);
- tubers have accumulated enough starch to persist for a long time and survive the winter period. This is easy to learn, you need to drop iodine on the pulp. If the flesh is lilac, the potatoes are ready for storage;
- When harvested, the is easily detached from the stem and root of the .
Why harvest on time
In order for the tubers to be preserved for a long time, the peel must be coarse with .Perederzhivat vegetable in the ground as it is impossible for the following reasons:
- potatoes damage harmful insects or diseases;
- tubers dry and lose weight;
- fruits rot from wet soil;
- vegetable frostbite from a sharp onset of cooling.
How to dig potatoes
There are several ways to dig potatoes. To do this, often use either ordinary gardening equipment - a shovel or pitchfork, or a special agricultural techniques.
At the same time, digging by hand is quite a laborious process, especially for those who have health problems. For the treatment of large areas is better to use the motoblock.
Cleaning with agricultural equipment can be done after all the tops in the area will be cut off by .After 2-3 days, you can begin to dig up the root.
Equipment is prepared in advance. To do this, it is recommended to pay attention to the elements of rotation. They need to be carefully lubricated with special oil, and the parts of the motoblock, which will loosen the soil, should be cleaned of earth, clay, and stones.
Using a motor cultivator or digging with a motor-cultivator implies compliance with the instructions:
- bushes must be planted in advance with in one flat row of so that they do not have to maneuver the equipment throughout the site;
- The distance between the rows should be 70-80 cm , so that the walk-behind tractor would not damage the wheels of the neighboring ridge;
- when harvesting it is better to use additional nozzles to adjust the depth;
- needs to adjust the technique in advance so that it digs up easily;
- in order for the wheels of the motoblock to move evenly, it is recommended to dig up potatoes through the ridge.
You can dig potatoes manually with a shovel or a penny. However, such work is suitable no more than 5 acres of land .If the garden is bigger, it is better to use the equipment - it is faster and more practical. Manual digging of potatoes is done as follows:
- one person digs under the tuber. To do this, drive a shovel near the tuber and raise it to the surface;
- second person picks potatoes, walking behind.
With manual work, you can do two things at once - to collect potatoes and sort them. You can leave the tubers to dry on the surface of the rows.
Preparing the soil for plowing
To prepare the land for planting the crop, it is necessary to process it well, saturate with oxygen. This requires deep tillage , so that the roots and tubers develop well.
There are several methods for preparing and cultivating the land:
- deep using cultivators and flat-cutters;
- plowing plow;
- with deepening of the arable horizon.
How to prepare the soil in the spring
First of all, you should understand what kind of soil is best for potatoes. Clay are not suitable wet. You can not plant potatoes in the lowlands, where there is a possibility of water accumulation.
The most suitable land - light, sandy, loose .Ideal if it is black soil, peat soil .If the soil is oxidized, it is necessary to treat it with a wood hall, sand with manure or compost before planting.
The choice of processing method depends on the land and geographic location. In almost all regions, autumn plowing to a depth of 30 cm is suitable.
How to work the land before planting
The first step to get a rich harvest is to to enrich the soil with oxygen .Therefore, it must be loosened. Loosening is carried out in dry weather. To do this, dig the soil to a depth of 15 cm .
Before you plant a potato, you need to carry out a number of procedures:
- dig the soil to a depth of 15–20 cm in advance to eliminate pests;
- to treat the soil with special solutions for the prevention of late blight;
- to enrich the soil with minerals and organic matter;
- a year before the planned planting of potatoes to land on the site sideraty.