Independent source of heat used in individual buildings, is often a boiler that runs on one of the fuels: coal, gas or electricity. An important role in heating organizations are pipes for heating boilers, by which made rail - assembly of all elements into a single system.
On the type of pipe products largely depends on the complexity of the installation, the cost of everything and the efficiency of the heating sector. Therefore, the question of choice of pipes should be taken carefully, agree?
We'll tell you what characteristics have pipes of different materials, denote the parameters of the heating system, which necessarily must take into account when designing the line, and give practical advice on installation of engineering communications.
The content of the article:
What are the options you can use pipes
- Quality, but expensive brassware
- The budget of the steel products
- Durable and lightweight polypropylene piping
One- and two-pipe heating systems
- Embodiment # 1 - system using a single tube
- Option # 2 - effective two-pipe scheme
- Tips for installation work
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
What are the options you can use pipes
When carrying out assembling of the boiler can be applied elements made of metals and polymers. When you select should pay attention to characteristics such as insulating properties, ease of installation and operation, durability, and cost of products.
Based on the amount of these criteria, to perform the binding, the following types of pipes.
Quality, but expensive brassware
Copper piping is relatively rare, because such tubes are expensive and require special skills during installation.
At the same time, the design made of this metal have a number of significant advantages, namely:
- good heat dissipation;
- resistance to corrosion and aggressive substances;
- resistance to freezing;
- high heat resistance.
Copper and well heated quickly with a minimum of heat, so parts made from this material will always generate heat during the heat-carrier transport.
Copper pipes are able to withstand much higher temperatures than plastic (up to + 300 ° C), while they hardly changed in size. The hot heat transfer fluid can circulate in the steel construction, but in this case increases the risk of corrosion
Pipes made of metal firmly kept environmental exposure. Over time, they can only be covered with a thin layer of oxide that does not affect the performance.
In contrast to pipes made of steel or polymers, plastic copper structures are not broken during the freezing of the coolant located therein.
The disadvantages copper pipes for heatingIt includes the impossibility of their application for creating closed structures in Stroebe, and the already mentioned high cost.
The budget of the steel products
Another common option products are made of steel.
These benefits include:
- high strengthAllowing easy transfer of mechanical loads.
- Low thermal coefficient of linear expansion, Whereby the length of the parts remains unchanged even at high heat.
- high thermal conductivityWhich allows to produce heat efficiently.
The disadvantages primarily refers to the propensity of corrosion which destroys metal, due to which similar elements are required to paint or cover with anticorrosive composition.
The disadvantage of steel elements is the difficulty in laying, which requires special equipment and professional skills. Manufacturing of structures of such elements need to trust those skilled
When choosing better to give preference steel pipes stainless steel: they are more expensive, but show greater resistance to environmental effects and better performance.
Durable and lightweight polypropylene piping
Similar products made from modern types of plastics are widely used thanks to many positive sides.
- affordable: The price of these products is much lower than in the metal equivalents.
- A light weight. Such elements weigh quite a bit, so you can save time and energy on their storage, transportation and installation.
- Easy installation. Plastic pipes are easily assembled into finished designs. Via special soldering iron even a layman can quickly arrange the harness.
- coolant circulation rate. In polypropylene tubes, even if they have a complex shape, is practically not formed blockages. This facilitates the flow of water, the rate of which remains unchanged throughout life (20-50 years).
- Good resistance to high pressure. This allows the use of plastic components even under difficult operating conditions.
The main disadvantage PPR-pipes - high rate of thermal expansion coefficient, so that these products when heated increase somewhat in length. To counter this phenomenon has to take action by establishing compensators.
Polypropylene tubes can create heating circuits of any degree of complexity. However, designs with a large number of holding elements complicate assembly and adversely affect the efficiency of the heating system
In addition, there are special versions of the pipes, which are reinforced with aluminum foil products labeled PN 25 - they can be used systems with pressures up to 2.5 MPa and a temperature of + 95 ° C, as well as reinforced elements PN 20, allowing operation in temperature conditions of + 80 ° C and a pressure of 2 MPa.
One- and two-pipe heating systems
The choice of tubing is also influenced by the pipeline circuit (one-, two-pipe), on which the heating medium movement.
In the figure is schematically depicted a single pipe and two-pipe heating system, each of which are peculiar advantages and disadvantages (+)
Consider the differences in mounting both circuit design.
Embodiment # 1 - system using a single tube
In this case, the boiler moves "supply" - the main highway, which has a larger diameter. It also serves as a coolant for the hot transfer, and for collecting already cooled liquid.
The figure shows one of the possible schemes boiler strapping comprising anticondensate pump and deaerator unit (+)
On the central artery sequential manner connected radiators. To do this, apply two thin pipes, one of which carries the acceptance of the coolant, and the second - his return.
AT pipe heating system liquid alternately through all radiators, passing over its path of the heat.
Two varieties of one-pipe schemes
According to the structural features of the two versions of the system are: flow and bypass. Flow design does not include standpipes, limited to direct connection of the upper floor radiator with their counterparts at the bottom.
In this scheme, we must not forget about the ban on the use of regulating valves, as they may prevent access of coolant, heading to the devices.
Such a system is easy to implement, but it has several drawbacks. Heat transfer medium in the circuit quickly cools, moreover, it is impossible to repair or adjust the system without its complete failure.
In this figure you can clearly see the features of installation of two popular varieties of pipe systems (+)
Heating a bypass system also implies the connection of radiators risers, which are responsible for the supply of coolant networks. At the same time, the battery is separated from the circuit closing link.
coolant distribution for all connected devices produced in batches in almost the same time, so that the heated liquid cools significantly less than in the flow schemes.
When the heating circuit with a bypass is possible to control the temperature and the repair device released without shutting down the system.
Selecting items for one-pipe system
The most popular option to perform a one-pipe heating circuits are of steel products, which have a moderate price and good processability. They are especially common in apartment buildings of the old buildings.
When installing the pipes is required to observe a bias, whose value should not exceed 5 millimeters at 1 meter. This stacking allows free transfer of the coolant, which will continue even in the event of a sudden or scheduled shutdown of the circulation pump.
In addition to steel elements for the construction of pipe systems, you can use products made of plastic. Because of the smaller figures of the hydraulic resistance of polymer pipes can be used a smaller diameter elements
For wiring line and return pipe system using elements of large diameter (<50 mm), while As for the connection of heating radiators in an open system is sufficient structural elements diameter 32 mm.
Option # 2 - effective two-pipe scheme
This variant of the heating scheme provides for two lines: one of them - the "supply" - is transported coolant, which is heated in the boiler, and in the second - "return pipes" - going to the cooled liquid which is given to the heating unit.
If forced circulation of heated liquid is ensured by lifting the main riser, after which there is its distribution over the series-connected batteries. In a natural circulation systems are not provided in the construction of inverse risers, and the connection devices by means of the upper wiring (+)
This modification of the heating system provides for parallel connection of batteries. Since the fluid circulation intensity depends on the difference in temperature between podvodkami in the flow and return pipes, the cold battery will quickly warm up and, consequently, all the connected devices is temperature flatten.
The advantages of two-pipe systems includes:
- High-speed circulation of the coolant;
- the ability to create hidden systems with pipes hidden in walls or floors;
- the heating efficiency of the air;
- hydrodynamic stability of the system;
- easy connection device used to adjust the supply of hot water.
Two-pipe system can be of different types:
- with the lower or upper wiring;
- or deadlock with associated transfer coolant;
- natural and forced circulation (the circulation pump used in the latter case).
Two-pipe system costs significantly more expensive than a single pipe, as well as more complex in the strip, rather than the last. At the same time, this option ensures a more comfortable working conditions.
Among the disadvantages of such a system, such factors as:
- double the number of pipes required for a lining structure, which considerably increases its cost and increases the time required for installation;
- the need to use different types of regulating and shutoff valves.
Despite the comments made above, namely two-pipe system It is considered to be the preferred solution, especially when it comes to the network associated with autonomous boilers.
It runs more efficiently and allows you to achieve a comfortable environment. It draws attention to the compatibility of such structures with all types of boilers and various types of heating batteries.
Elements of design for two-pipe systems
When selecting components for the construction of the double pipe structure is better to give preference to polypropylene elements although it is possible to use other variants (copper, metal and plastic) that can withstand the heat and pressure.
Modern materials and technologies provide the ability to install the system without the use of welding, to perform the installation on the principle designer. Since each pipe bend facilitates increasing the hydraulic resistance to avoid rotations and strive to lay pipes maximally exactly
By collecting and feeding lines, which are connected to boilers, optimally suitable pipe diameter of 50 mm. Of similar parts are also performed risers, which are attached to the radiator.
to the flow and return pipes battery connection is made tubes of different diameters, the choice of which is influenced by the number of sections:
- for connecting radiators 25-35-sectional required pipe diameter of 1.5 inches;
- 10-25-section - 1 inch;
- less than 10 sections - three quarters of an inch.
To prevent heat all the pipes and connections must be insulated.
Tips for installation work
When the strapping heating boilers should apply certain rules. For example, it is recommended to use polypropylene tubes marked with the class 5 operation, the operating pressure of 4-6 atmospheres, a nominal pressure (PN) - 25 atmospheres or higher.
To prevent resizing PPR-pipes should consider when designing the installation compensatory loops.
For heating systems preferably use the reinforced tubing as foil layer reduces the rate of thermal elongation in the two, and glass fiber - fivefold
at boiler piping polypropylene fittings can be connected with pipes in a single heating system by screwing or threading method of cold / hot welding. Threaded method is much more convenient, but it will cost a lot more expensive because of the need for a large number of adapters.
Without threaded fittings can not be dispensed with, if there is a need to connect plastic pipes to metal parts or hardware issue between elements of different diameters.
When assembling the construction of pipes and fittings, it is desirable to use a variety of elements formed from a single type of material, ideally - by the same manufacturer. This will ensure a uniform product characteristics that affect the reliability and durability of the system
For easy laying of linear systems and the implementation of joint connections is a large assortment of fittings: tees, couplings, adapters, and others.
Under cold welding involves the use of a special adhesive that fixed parts of the system. Recently, this method is almost out of use because it is not sufficiently reliable result.
A threaded connection allows reuse designs elements: in the case of problems occur, they can be disassembled, and then re-screw elements. Welding allows you to mount a more robust system, but they are one-off: it must be replaced with the construction slightest malfunction.
For welding of polypropylene tubes of a large diameter (> 63 mm) it is expedient to use butt method is performed using specialized devices. In this case it is possible to do without the use of connecting parts (+)
For hot welding It uses a special device designed for soldering of plastic elements. In this case, both parts of the structure are heated simultaneously on the nozzle to the melting point of 260 ° C, and then pressed against each other to form a reliable connection.
When connecting a pipe reinforced with a metal foil layer is necessary to clean that it does not interfere with fasteners, whereas can safely avoided with elements with fiberglass this operation.
Plastic does not fit well with anti-freeze, so in systems made of plastic elements, as a coolant is suitable only heated water.
When the heating systems all threaded connections must be sealed by means paronita or other high temperature sealant, since the coolant circulating therein has a high temperature.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
On the video below, you will hear a reasoned opinion of the expert on the use of various types of pipes for the installation of the heating system.
To perform the binding of the boiler can be used various kinds of pipes, which should be the optimal choice for take into account a whole range of factors, especially the boiler and heating system, material possibilities, personal preferences.
If there is some skill assembly of plastic components can be carried out independently, observing the diagram clearly, but to install the metal pipe is better to seek professional help.
Look for high-quality pipes for boiler connection? Or have experience in the installation and use of a particular pipe rolling? Please leave comments on the article, ask questions and participate in discussions. Contact form located below.