How to properly charge batteries of different types

How to properly charge batteries of different types

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The advantage of batteries in front of conventional batteries is that the service life of the first is much longer. But in order to take advantage of this, you need to know how to charge the battery, depending on its type and features.

Content

  • 1Types of batteries
  • 2Features of charging
    • 2.1Lead
    • 2.2Nickel
    • 2.3Lithium
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Types of batteries

To date, quite a lot of different battery devices have been invented. The principle of action of any of them is that electrochemical reactions take place inside, in the result of which appear charged particles, there is a potential difference (voltage) and electricity. Reactions inside the battery are reversible, so it can be charged. To do this, it is necessary to pass current through it in the opposite direction. The number of recharges varies depending on the type of device and how well you use it.

Batteries can be connected in parallel or in series, forming a battery. In this way, the current or voltage is increased, respectively. Depending on the chemical composition of electrodes and electrolyte, the following most popular types of batteries are distinguished:

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  • lead-acid;
  • nickel-cadmium (cadmium is an anode);
  • nickel metal hydride (metal hydride is an anode);
  • nickel-zinc;
  • lithium-ion;
  • advanced lithium-polymer;

This is not the whole list, so you can meet another type, but these are found most often in devices that we use in everyday life.

All the batteries can be charged with the help of specially designed devices for this, therefore, together with the device or battery, they usually get a charger. If you do not want to buy a charger, then you have the opportunity to contact the technical service center. They usually provide such services. Some batteries can be charged from any DC source. In this case, the source voltage should be greater, and the current must be limited by the value of в, from the capacity of the battery. Exceeding the level of charge is undesirable.

Features of charging

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Maximum use of the battery life is possible only if it is properly charged and operated. Let's consider in more detail how to charge a battery of one type or another.

Lead

Lead-acid batteries are installed on cars and other vehicles, used in as an uninterrupted power source, as well as for recharging other batteries in emergency situations. They are reliable and unpretentious. Car owners need to know how to correctly store and recharge the power source of their cars.

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They are discharged for a long time. At 20 ° C, they can discharge only 40% per year. However, they need to be recharged for a long time - almost a day. Charge the lead batteries can be a constant current (it should be, capacity, usually is indicated on the case), or a constant voltage (for a 12 volt battery it is 1, volts).

Apply pulse and transformer chargers, which in turn can be automatic or conventional. Charging should take place in a ventilated room or in the open air, as an explosive gas is released and it should not accumulate.

  • First check the electrolyte level in each battery and top up it if necessary.
  • A charger is connected to the terminals and current is set (see above).

Maintenance-free batteries are charged with a constant voltage. The optimum temperature for charging should be about 20 ° C. Properly store the car battery must be fully charged, in its pure form, in a cool room.

Nickel

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Nickel-cadmium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are widely used in construction tools, technical equipment and some types of electric transport. Many owners of power tools are interested in how to properly charge them.

A distinctive feature of nickel batteries is the memory effect. If the battery is not fully discharged, and you started charging it, then it will not give back the entire charge, but only part of it (up to the previous border), and will no longer work. The battery seems to remember that it was not fully discharged last time, and its capabilities are lowered.

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To make the nickel battery work as long as possible, it must be completely discharged, then fully charged. This is especially true for nickel-cadmium devices. Note that there are chargers that are equipped with the function of "after discharge". If the battery has lost its capacity, you can try to completely recharge it 3 times in a row.

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Do not benefit the nickel battery and its recharge, so you need to disconnect it from the charger in time. At the end of the process indicates an increase in the temperature of the shell or a light bulb. Nickel-cadmium batteries will correctly store in a discharged state, but nickel-metal hydride batteries are only fully charged.

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Nickel-zinc current sources are usually replaced by finger cells, they can work in frost and in hot streets, are environmentally and fire-safe. They have no memory effect, but they are characterized by a small number of charge / discharge cycles - about 300. You can charge them with a special or universal charger.

Lithium

In place of nickel comes more modern lithium sources. Lithium-ion and more advanced lithium-polymer devices are used to power mobile phones, notebooks, tablets, electric vehicles, can be installed on construction tools (drills, screwdrivers and etc.).

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The advantage of lithium batteries is that they can give off a lot of current and very quickly recharge. In addition, they are practically not discharged while in storage. They have almost no memory effect, but eventually they age - they lose about 20% of capacity in a couple of years. That's why they recommend not buying them for stock and checking the release date when buying.

Lithium devices are very whimsical, so it's important to use them correctly and charge them.

  • Keep lithium batteries advised to be charged at 60-40%.
  • Do not leave them in the cold or in a hot place, especially during the charging process.
  • High and low temperatures render the device unusable.
  • Do not allow a deep discharge of the lithium current source and increase the voltage on it, since it can completely fail.

Due to the design features, lithium batteries can only be recharged using special chargers. There are universal chargers suitable for different types of batteries, and chargers designed only for lithium sources. The latter cost significantly less, and in the first it is necessary to make adjustments.

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The popularity of lithium batteries is growing all over the world, and they gradually supplant the nickel, even despite their finickyness. This is due not only to high capacity and a large potential number of recharges. Lithium devices are safer from an environmental point of view, which is being given increased attention today.

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