The device and features of microwave operation

The device and features of microwave operation


The principle of the microwave oven is based on the process of converting an electromagnetic microwave field. The electromagnetic field is converted into heat and contactlessly heats the product placed in the chamber. This is the main difference between the microwave oven and other devices - electric ovens, gas ovens, etc.

In microwave ovens, heating occurs directly within the heated product, which is why the process takes only a few minutes. And in traditional furnaces, heat is directed to the surface of the object, and extends further, depending on the heat-conducting properties of the product. Of course, this method is less efficient than microwave waves, and it also requires much more knowledge in the field of cooking.

Even with the passage of time and the development of technology, the microwave device remains unchanged. Yes, the design was improved and became more comfortable, the functionality developed, new ways of adjusting time and power appeared. But the principle of work does not change to this day.

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Many people confuse such concepts as "microwave oven" and "microwave oven but these are just different names for the same device.


Ten years ago, microwave ovens were considered an inadmissible luxury and a simple addition to the interior of the kitchen. All the fault was the high cost of such devices, and not everyone could afford such an innovation. But over time it became clear that this is not a luxury, but a necessity, especially in times of urbanization and the ongoing race for money.


  • 1Due to what happens heating?
  • 2The door is an important element of the microwave oven
    • 2.1Video: myths about the harmfulness of microwave ovens

Due to what happens heating?

The principle of the microwave oven is built on an element such as a magnetron. This concept is widely known to everyone who is familiar with the world of radar devices. It is thanks to the magnetron that mankind has received the most efficient and easy-to-use device for cooking and heating food. This is one of the most vivid examples of how the development of heavy industry with stunning success began to be applied in everyday life.

The device microwave oven can be briefly conveyed in these words - the magnetron generates microwave energy, which is converted into heat. Power sources for these elements are special anodic-voltage transformers-stabilizers, which are the reason for such a high price for microwave ovens. These stabilizers are the most expensive and important element of the furnace.


Studying the principle of the action of a microwave oven, special attention will be paid to the design of a magnetic circuit equipped with magnetic shunts. This device makes it possible to change the increased voltage only within two percent, in conditions of a voltage fluctuation of the network of 10%. The magnetic line and the significant inductive force of the dispersion of the high-voltage winding are the main attractions of the microwave transformer. In words, everything seems rather complicated, but in practice such a device has proved to be simple and extremely effective.


But at the first stages of development, the creators encountered such a problem as increased noise during the operation of the stove. Excessive noise has always been the problem of many samples of household appliances, but manufacturers easily bypassed this underwater stone. To reduce the noise level, some parts of the magnetic circuit are connected by welding.

The standard microwave housing is a rectangular chamber that plays a significant role in heating. The generated waves are not simply directed to the heated object - they are reflected from the walls of the shell.

An additional element, thanks to which it is possible to ensure high-quality and uniform heating, is a rotating saucer in the chamber. Rotating, it allows the waves to uniformly affect the surface. The principle of operation is such that the waves produced are by no means uniform: they can be with beams, knots, etc. The magnetron transmits power to the radiator via a rectangular waveguide.

The door is an important element of the microwave oven


In the production of microwave oven, the most attention is paid to the door. Everyone knows that in every microwave oven the door plays the role of such a safety device - as soon as it opens, the operation of the stove stops. The door device is quite complicated, because it is directly related to the level of safety during operation. The principle of the door is as follows:

  • An ideal shape of the door and casing is necessary, so that the gap is minimal. The door protects the environment from the action of microwave radiation, and therefore it must be treated with maximum responsibility.
  • The perimeter of the door is equipped with a high-frequency throttle, which is responsible for lowering the microwave radiation to the required values.
  • In the production process, a special type of plastic is used, which promotes absorption of radiation.

The control panel does not represent anything complicated. Usually these are two handles that adjust the power and cooking time. The timer can be either mechanical or in the form of an electronic dial.

Nowadays many modern models are equipped with panels with a choice of different modes, but in fact these are just minor additions - the basic principle of operation does not change.

For all the years of the existence of microwave ovens much has been said about their harmful effects on health. In fact, microwave ovens do not emit radioactive radiation, and even allow you to cook healthier foods, saving up to 75% of vitamins in foods (which can not be said about traditional cooking methods). If you follow the safety precautions, there will be no harm to your health from the microwave oven.

More on the topic: is microwave harmful?

Video: myths about the harmfulness of microwave ovens

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