Heating of industrial facilities and houses is quite expensive. Reducing the cost of payments will allow energy-saving heating systems, through which you can save significant funds without giving up the comfortable conditions in the room.
We offer to understand what are the options for improving energy efficiency at home, what are the features of their use. A detailed review of energy-saving technologies will help decide on the feasibility of arranging a particular type of heating system.
The content of the article:
- Ways to improve energy efficiency at home
- Control system "Smart Home"
- Reduced costs with instruments
- Energy efficient boilers and stoves
Use of environmentally friendly fuel
- Heating with wood stoves
- Two types of heat pumps
- Solar energy saving devices
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Ways to improve energy efficiency at home
To reduce the cost of energy used for heating, you can different methods:
- energy efficiency of the building;
- the use of the “Smart Home” system, as well as other automatics, which allows minimizing costs;
- reduction of electrical losses with the help of radiators and other devices;
- increase the efficiency of heating boilers or furnaces;
- using eco-friendly types of energy (firewood, solar panels).
For best results, you can use a combination of two or more options.
Even the most reliable and high-quality heating system will not be of particular use if large-scale returns occur in the house. heat, therefore measures should be taken that will prevent heat leakage through the gaps and open window vents.
It is important to take simple but effective steps by overlaying floors, walls, doors, ceilings, and window frames with thermal insulation material. In addition to insulation according to regulatory requirements, additional insulation can be placed. This will further reduce heat loss, thereby increasing the energy efficiency of the building.
For quality insulation you can call a specialist energy auditor. He will make a thermal imaging survey of the house, which will reveal the places of the most intense heat losses, which should be insulated first
As a rule, the greatest heat loss occurs through the walls, attic overlap, and also a floor on logs. These sites require high-quality insulation. To prevent heat leaks through the windows, you can use shutters that close at night.
Control system "Smart Home"
Automatic devices of the complex "Smart House" able to make a huge contribution to the economy of energy used to generate heat.
The maximum level of efficiency can be achieved by choosing a system equipped with a number of additional functions, namely:
- weather-dependent management;
- indoor temperature sensor;
- the possibility of external control in the provided data exchange;
- priority contours.
Consider all the above advantages in more detail.
Weather-dependent temperature control in the house involves adjusting the heating level of the coolant, depending on the outdoor temperature. If it is frost outside, the water in the radiator will be somewhat hotter than usual. At the same time, with warming, heating will be less intense.
The absence of such a function often leads to an excessive increase in air temperature in the rooms. This not only leads to waste of energy, but not too comfortable for the inhabitants of the house.
Touch control panels provide the ability to select the energy saving mode option, which allows you to quickly and easily adjust the temperature in the home
Most of these devices have two modes: “summer” and “winter”. When using the first one, all heating circuits are switched off, while only devices designed for year-round use, such as pool heating, remain functioning.
Room temperature sensor not only needed to control the maintenance of automatically set temperature. As a rule, this device is combined with a regulator, which allows, if necessary, to increase or decrease heating.
An external temperature sensor is an indispensable part of most Smart Homes control units. Such devices are mandatory installed in the room, and if the heat is supplied by the floor, then on each floor
The thermostat can be programmed to reduce the temperature in the rooms during certain hours, for example, when the inhabitants of the house go to work, which contributes to significant cost savings heat
Priority heating circuits with the simultaneous operation of various devices. So, when the boiler is turned on, the control unit turns off the auxiliary circuits and other devices from the heat supply.
This reduces the power of the boiler room, which allows to reduce fuel costs, as well as to evenly distribute the load for a specified period of time.
System climate controlconnecting in a single network control of air conditioning, heating, electricity, ventilation, not It only increases the comfort in the house and minimizes the risk of emergency situations, but also allows you to save energy carriers.
Climate control actuators that regulate all the functions of maintaining temperature parameters in a room, as a rule, are hidden from view, for example, placed in a collector cabinet
External management - The ability to transfer data to smartphones allows owners to monitor the situation, so that if necessary, to make prompt adjustments. One such solution is GSM module for boiler heating.
Reduced costs with instruments
The most effective is the heating system, which allows to achieve comfortable heating at the minimum coolant temperature. To achieve this goal it is best to use a scheme water heated floor.
This method is comfortable and hygienic, besides the designs are completely hidden from view, that allows you to combine a warm floor with various types of traditional coatings: tiles, linoleum, carpet, parquet flooring
Unfortunately, in harsh climates, warm floors are often not able to compensate for heat loss, especially if large glazed spaces are provided in a house. This is explained by the fact that the maximum allowable temperature of the floor covering has a hard limit: it should not exceed + 27 ° C.
The best option in this case is a combination of a warm floor with modern radiators, which can be connected to the bottom of the floor or wall, which allows to exclude from the interior is not too aesthetic eyeliner pipes.
A huge range of radiators is on sale, which differ not only in the manufacturer and type of device, but also in color, shape, size. This allows you to find the optimal model to fit it into the interior.
If we proceed from the principle of energy efficiency, it is better to dwell on the collector-beam two-pipe radiator heating circuit. In this case, a special heating branch is held in each room - a supply and return element.
This system allows you to maintain in each room its temperature, minimally affecting the neighboring rooms.
Energy efficient boilers and stoves
To save energy from fossil fuels, it’s worth replacing a traditional heater with an environmentally friendly and energy-efficient stove (oil or gas) or heating boiler. In the first case, it is important to pay attention to the system of air ducts that distribute heated air through the rooms.
If the life of the old boiler exceeds ten years, it is better to replace it with a modern model, the efficiency of which can reach 94 percent
When using boilers, it is also necessary to think over the communications through which water will flow through radiators or underfloor heating systems.
When choosing boilers or stoves, it is important to consider the following factors:
- Presence of ventilation. A boiler or stove equipped with an airtight combustion chamber should be blown with a stream of outside air. This prevents possible air pollution within the room and reduces the likelihood of external air masses entering the house.
- Presence of electric ignition. Such models are considered much more effective options with an ignition flame.
- Capacitive heat exchanger and condenser, which allow you to accumulate excess energy, which saves on the development of new calories.
Although modern furnaces and boilers run on fossil fuels (fuel oil, propane), they are still considered energy efficient and environmentally friendly devices. For their operation, a minimum amount of fuel is sufficient, and the number of harmful substances that are released during combustion is negligible.
Use of environmentally friendly fuel
Now the priority is given to the development of alternative energy using renewable resources.
Among the most common options include the following:
- heat pumps;
- devices for the processing of solar energy.
In addition, other methods of energy-saving technologies are being developed, for example, wind generator installations.
Heating with wood stoves
For centuries, wood has been widely used for home heating and cooking: it is a renewable resource that is accessible to the majority of the population. In order to generate heat, you can use not only full-fledged trees, but also wood waste, such as brushwood, branches, chips.
Special wood-burning stoves are used to burn such fuels, which can be either a cast iron or a welded steel construction.
Disadvantages of wood stoves
At the same time, such devices have a number of disadvantages that prevent their widespread use:
- Wood-burning stoves are considered the most environmentally unfriendly heaters operating on renewable energy sources: when wood is burned, a large amount of combustion products enters the air.
- Wood logging, carried out independently, requires a significant amount of work: wood pipe, sawing and splitting firewood. In addition, the furnace must often be cleaned of accumulated ash.
- Heating devices on firewood are also considered the most flammable heaters, since improper maintenance of chimneys can cause fire in them.
- The stoves heat the room where they are located, while the air in other spaces may remain cold for a long time.
- Wood heaters are not suitable for installation in ordinary urban housing - some models can to mount in the apartments, however, this process requires the coordination and design of a large number of documents.
With choosing a wood stove need to give preference to an effective modern model. Some variants have special devices - catalytic converters, which allow burn incompletely burned liquids and gases, which increases efficiency and reduces emissions of harmful items.
For greater efficiency, some models of wood-burning stoves are equipped with double walls or fans. Such options allow to improve air circulation, increase the production and distribution of heat.
In some modern wood-burning stoves, special partitions are also provided, which are located above the working chamber. They direct the remaining gases and liquids into the fire, increasing the efficiency of combustible materials. Similar constructions can also reduce the accumulation of creosote.
For a more uniform heating, you can think about installing a gas-wood stove, which allows you to use two types of fuel at the same time. It is also possible to install outdoor wood-burning stoves: with their help, the water is heated, which circulates through the heat exchange system, heating the room.
Two types of heat pumps
Such units have long earned great popularity: it is one of the most efficient types of home heating, representing a minimum of danger to the environment.
A common variant of the air heat pump is called "mini-split." It has outdoor and one or more indoor units that can supply both hot and cold air.
The models on the market are of two types:
- Air heat pumps. Devices equipped with special devices capable even on cold days (up to -20 ° C) to capture heat from the atmosphere, and then distribute it around the house using the laid ductwork.
- Geothermal Heat Pumps. Such devices allow you to use the heat of the soil. For this purpose, in the ground below the freezing level (as a rule, below 1.2 m) horizontal laying is performed with rings. If the area of the site is too small, then the pumps are placed in vertically drilled wells, the depth of which can reach 200 m. More information about the organization of such heating is written in this article.
Although the operation of heat pumps requires electricity, these devices are recognized as energy efficient, since compared to spent resources, they extract much more heat - one to three for air, one to four for geothermal devices.
In this case, the devices do not pollute the air and are completely fireproof. The advantage of heat pumps is their ability to work in reverse mode, that is, not only to heat, but also to cool the air. Water heaters can also be installed on geothermal devices, providing water heating up to + 60 ° С.
Although the cost of geothermal devices is higher than that of air, the first option is considered more promising because such pumps have greater efficiency (+)
New and reconstructed houses can be equipped with both thermal and geothermal devices, whereas in old houses it is only possible to install the first type of pump.
Using heat pumps, you need to consider that their effectiveness depends on the temperature difference between the consumer and the source. In case of frosts, it is necessary to use equipment with a significant excess of power, or use additional appliances for heating your house, for example, energy efficient boilers or furnaces.
Solar energy saving devices
Recently, great importance has been attached to the development of technologies that make it possible to use solar energy for domestic and industrial purposes.
Solar air collectors
A simple and economical method of heating buildings, which is most often used as an additional source of electricity. In this case, special devices are mounted on the roof on the south side of the house, so that sunlight falls on them even in winter.
Once inside the chamber the limit temperature is reached, the tiny fan responsible for the heat exchange is automatically turned on. The air from the rooms begins to pass through the collector, and "taking away" the heat, again come inside the house.
Depending on the energy efficiency of the building and the amount of sunlight, the collector can heat a space of 44 square meters. m and more.
Solar air collectors are inexpensive, reliable and efficient fixtures. With certain skills such devices can be made independently (+)
Durable collectors, the maintenance of which requires a minimum of funds, are suitable for installation in new or reconstructed houses.
Such devices are environmentally friendly and cost-effective option for heating buildings, but before installing them careful calculations will be required to correctly determine the dimensional network and planned capacity collectors.
Depending on the design, solar modules can operate completely autonomously or use a small amount of electricity from the network. In the latter case, it will be necessary to make an appropriate change in the laying of electrical communications.
Water solar collectors
A more complex option solar devices are solar hot water systems. Their design includes the above-described collectors, mounted on the roof of a building, accumulative tank, which is most often installed in the utility room (basement, closet), as well as connecting them pipes.
A heat transfer fluid, in which water or non-toxic antifreeze is used, is pumped into the solar collectors, where the temperature of the liquid rises significantly. After that, it passes back to the tank, from where heat is transferred through the heat exchanger to the water in the special tank.
A well-heated fluid is used for domestic use, for example, to heat a heated floor or a flow system.
The diagram shows a solar hot water system. With a large number of solar cells and a bulk tank, it is quite suitable for heating the whole house (+)
Solar systems for building heating work silently, without emitting harmful substances. They can be used to work in different climates, but their effectiveness will vary depending on the specific region - this figure requires checking before installation.
Energy-saving heating scheme is suitable for both new buildings and old buildings, it’s only important Consider that a small amount is necessary for the operation of electronic control devices and pumps electricity.
The main disadvantage of such systems is the production of excess hot water during warm seasons. In hot summer, this can be a problem: as a rule, excess heat is discharged through the discharge of a pipe buried in the ground.
Passive solar heating
An economical way to heat a house is to use a passive solar heating system. For such structures do not require additional communications, as well as the use of additional mechanical devices, such as pumps or fans.
The only thing required for heating is a large number of clear days and low sun, which gives heat to windows on the south side.
As a rule, during the day, internal heat is absorbed by brick or plaster walls, as well as concrete floors. At night, however, it is produced to maintain a comfortable temperature in the building.
In order for such a house to be energy efficient, it must be airtight and well insulated. For this purpose, special low-emission windows that store heat in the winter and reflect it in summer are used.
The function of passive solar heating should be provided already at the design stage of the house. Add it to an existing building is extremely difficult (+)
Passive solar option in sunny areas can save 50-79% of the cost of heating. It is quite natural that the construction of such a house will cost the owners much more expensive than the usual structure, but in the long-term perspective the benefit of such a construction is unequivocal.
Unfortunately, in the Russian climate, this method is not very popular because of the low temperatures at which more heat is lost through the windows than is received from sunlight.
Solar heating is a promising direction, which is gaining more and more popularity every year. The use of solar systems is especially important for warm regions. On our site there is a series of articles on solar heating systems.
We advise you to read:
- Solar energy as an alternative source of energy: types and features of the use of solar systems
- Solar panels for cottages and houses: types, principle of operation and calculation procedure for solar systems
- How to make a solar collector for do-it-yourself heating: a step by step guide
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
The video below shows one of the most effective ways to save energy - the use of solar collectors.
There are many different options for heating systems that consume a minimum of fossil raw materials. The main task of residents is the choice of the most optimal energy-efficient heating scheme.
Although the installation of such structures will require some funds, they will quickly pay for themselves, since they help to effectively save on heating costs.
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