Incandescent lamps are disappearing. The reason for this was the low efficiency and short life compared to current light sources. Now at the peak of popularity - 220V LED lamps, which have many advantages. In the vast range of LED-devices difficult to understand without training. Do you agree?
We will talk about how to choose the diode lamps for home lighting network optimization. In our proposed article described in detail the types and characteristics of LED devices. Dana transcript labeling, provides recommendations to help you find the right option.
The content of the article:
- Device features LED lamps
Types of LED light sources
- Field use
- In appearance
- According to the type of light-emitting diodes
- Advantages and disadvantages of LEDs
Choosing LED lamps on the characteristics
- Luminous flux
- Consumption maximum power
- The level of the color temperature
- Kind of the lamp cap
- Operating temperature range
- Pulsation light flux
- Degree of protection housing
- The angle of dispersion of the light beam
- Tips for choosing LED-lamps
- Marking of LED devices
- Leading manufacturers of LED-lamps
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Device features LED lamps
Modern LED-lamps are more complicated than their predecessors from the filament. LEDs for operation requires a number of electronic components that are located on the PCB.
All components are hidden within a compact housing. Themselves as light sources occupy a minimal amount of space in the luminaire.
The weak point of inexpensive LED-lamps are capacitors, low quality which results in a ripple of light. In addition, they can burn themselves before LEDs
Construction a standard LED-lamp includes the following components:
- The light diffuser made of plastic. It facilitates uniform distribution of the light flow in all directions around a lamp.
- PCB with capacitors, voltage transformers and other electronic components.
- LEDs. Their number and operating voltage is in strict accordance with the built-in electronic circuitry.
- Aluminum radiator designed to dissipate heat in high-power lamps.
- Ventilation slots that provide passive cooling and the LED board.
- Cap, by means of which the lamp is mounted in the luminaire.
Thus, the LED bulb - a device with a complex internal structure. It is demanding to the external temperature and the supply voltage.
Types of LED light sources
All LEDs can be divided into two broad categories: the indicator and lighting. The first type is used in electrical engineering for illumination of instrument panels, displays, alarm indication, and also to other devices without requiring a large luminous flux.
A lighting LEDs are used as times for domestic LED-lamps. Such lamps can be classified by purpose, the external structure and the type of radiation sources.
LED-lamp capture more technological niches. They are used in consumer electronics, industrial and commercial equipment.
LED-projectors for street lighting are made primarily on the basis of a single large LED, so it is not possible to adjust the brightness
The principal applications of LED lamps are:
- Street lighting.
- High-performance spotlight.
- Lighting of industrial buildings and apartments.
- Agriculture. Used lamp has a radiation spectrum able to initiate photosynthesis.
- Car lights.
- Backlight products in shopping windows.
- Lighting space in explosive environments.
A large number of fields of use of LED-lighting due to differences in the characteristics of the LEDs and their emitted spectrum. Constantly developing innovative lamp types, which allow to occupy new market niches.
One reason for the prevalence of LED-lamps - the minimum size of the semiconductor chips. Because of this, they can acquire the most diverse form.
High-power LED devices should not be installed in areas with limited air circulation - it can cause overheating of the LED
The main structures LED-lamps are:
- Classical performance by type of incandescent lamp socket. Such lamps usually contain several different directions LEDs.
- "Corn". This lamp has the form of a cylinder, plastered on all sides by LEDs.
- Ribbon-shaped LED-lamps, in which the individual crystals successively arranged on a narrow thin substrate.
- Projectors with one large glowing crystal.
- Spot ceiling lights.
- The flat panel LED-circular, rectangular, or of arbitrary shape.
The small size and simplicity of the LEDs to the installation site allows to make on the basis of their design lights of unusual shape. A low heating LED-lamp does not preclude their placement near gypsum and plastic surfaces.
According to the type of light-emitting diodes
Lighting LEDs are separated by their physical structure into several types, each of which has its own characteristics and prevailing application.
LED-lamps are made of three basic types:
- SMD (surface mounted LEDs).
- COB (chip unit).
- Filament (LED string).
At the surface mounted LEDs low luminosity, but they can be self-brazed to any surface without fear of overheating.
Therefore, they are often used in the manufacture of LED strips and portable lights. Radiation angle in SMD-LEDs is 90-130 degrees, so to illuminate the entire room is required around the lamp radial layout of the crystals on the bottom.
Power LED-lamp with LED depends on number of filaments of glass fibers, their length and placed on them characteristics crystals
COB-LEDs are crystals with high luminosity, arranged on a metallic substrate. It is designed to dissipate heat generated during operation.
The angle of radiation devices on the chip close to 180 degrees, so they are poorly suited to a focused light. COB used in the manufacture of projectors and premium lamps.
LED filaments are a series of tiny crystals sequentially placed on the glass fiber. Sometimes other transparent materials are used instead of glass. This structure makes it possible to make a circular uniform lighting.
The main problem of high-power LED is a small overheating, which reduces their service life and the level of light output.
Advantages and disadvantages of LEDs
More recently, at the top of popularity were fluorescent lamps, but in a few years, they have been superseded by LED-lamps.
Recent years, LED lighting has won the lion's share of the market thanks to many consumer advantages, among which are the following:
- economy. New LED-lamps consume 9-10 times less energy than similar luminous flux of an incandescent lamp.
- Durability. A period of continuous service of good LEDs is calculated in years, although their luminosity and somewhat reduced over time.
- high efficiencyWhereby the lamp virtually no heat.
- Security. If damaged LED-lamp is not formed sharp splinters and no harmful substances. The emitted UV flux is absent.
- Possibility of regulation color temperature.
- high strengths LEDs.
- Regulation brightness.
- operability a wide temperature range.
- A wide range of. The possibility of producing lighting devices of any shape.
The numerous advantages of LED lamps contribute to a massive shift of consumers to these light sources.
To secure the benefits of LED-lamps to the full, you should buy a model from famous brands, which guarantee the quality of its products
However, LED-lamps have its drawbacks, to be aware of when purchasing:
- Expensiveness. The cost of the cheap LED-lamp is 4-5 times higher than incandescent lamps.
- Using matte flasks impairs visual effects of crystal chandeliers.
- Plummeting luminosity with regular overheating.
- Light flicker in low-cost models, which adversely affects the vision and overall health.
- Pointedness of light, which makes use radial arrangement of the LEDs.
- Cheap electronic components LED-lamps are broken faster than fuses crystal, which reduces the actual service life.
- Incorrect work when connected to a switch with indicator.
Despite the shortcomings of LED lamps, the population continues to buy them. The real savings are achieved only in 3-4 years, and only when the performance of the acquired lamps. Therefore, the appropriateness of their purchase is worth more to evaluate.
Choosing LED lamps on the characteristics
Operation of LED lamps with 220V voltage is characterized by more than ten technical parameters. Awareness about them will buy lamps that will best meet the needs of light and ensure long-term operation of the LEDs.
Analyzing the light output of lamps is possible both in nominal units (lumens), and relative (lumen / watt). The greater the power LED, the brighter the emitted light beam.
Fluorescent lamps are susceptible to frequent switching on and off, so their use in communicating room quickly leads to failure
However, an important relation to the luminous flux 1 W consumed energy.
It differs from different manufacturers:
- in European, Japanese and Chinese specialties - 110-125Lm / W;
- from cheap Chinese - 60-80Lm / W;
- from major international suppliers, using COB technology - 180-190Lm / W.
Buy LED lamps, carefully examining recommended characteristics of devices. Worth paying attention with the higher luminous flux of 1 W of power. They are economical, durable, and are not much more expensive.
Consumption maximum power
On the level of power consumption of LED-lamps is directly dependent of the emitted light beam. As part of a lineup, this dependence is almost linear.
Because the LEDs themselves take up little space in the lamp, its capacity can easily be increased without changing the body shape is only due to the growth of crystals.
But since the ultimate purpose of buying lamps is still a sufficient level of illumination in the room, it is sometimes better to buy one expensive LED-reliable device than the two cheapest. Their luminous flux will be equal, and power consumption - vary twofold.
The level of the color temperature
On the level of color temperature LED-lamp shade depends on their emitted light. It can vary from yellow to white. Each color has a different effect on the person. Lamps with warm amber have 2600-3200K temperature and promote relaxation. They are recommended to buy for the home.
In rooms with yellow walls recommended LED-lamps having a temperature of about 4000K to white light stressed interior elements
Lamps with 6000K temperatures are cool white with a blue tint, and increase efficiency. They are placed in offices, industrial buildings, as well as a work desk.
There are lamps that emit neutral white light. Their temperature is 3700-4200K and they provide an emission spectrum maximum approximate to daylight.
Kind of the lamp cap
When changing bulbs in LED is important to pay attention to cap diode device. The most common options for screw-E27 and E14, as well as with 2 pins - GU5.3, GU10 and GU13. When buying is recommended to take your old lamp to the store, show them to the seller, so he suggested the appropriate LED model.
Purchase of lamps with irregular shape of the cap requires a return to the store, the return fixture design and purchase a suitable model
Manufacturers of LED-lamps have taken care of the owners of the old fluorescent tubes. For them available LED counterparts to replaceWhich have the same dimensions and connectors. They can be incorporated into the body of existing fixtures.
Operating temperature range
LED-lamps are susceptible to overheating, so it is important to take into account their operating temperature written on the packaging.
On heating lamps is influenced by the following factors:
- The presence of the lamp cap.
- The temperature in the room.
- Distance to ceiling spotlights fixed on the drywall.
- The presence of aluminum radiator in the lamp.
- Short term temperature rise in the room, such as in the kitchen during cooking.
For operation at elevated temperatures sold LED lamp special design. It is recommended to buy them to avoid the negative influence of overheating on the LED if desired.
Pulsation light flux
Light quality LED lamps should not even throb, because the flashing with a frequency below 300Hz have a negative impact on human health. Determine the light flux instability in several ways.
Ripple LED-lamps on the phone screen can be displayed in the form of horizontal stripes. High frequency blinks same matrix camera is not recorded
The first method is visual: it is necessary to look at the lamp directly or peripheral vision. In the second method for induced smartphone lamp chamber and is defined by its blinking on the screen.
Ripple is determined mainly in low-cost models, equipped with a simple control unit. Dear lamps such drawback have not.
Degree of protection housing
As long as LED lamps are used, which operate around the clock. Therefore, the maximum efficiency can be achieved by lighting fixtures placed on the street. However, they must be protected against moisture and dust to their internal electronic components are not out of order.
Filling LED-lamps for outdoor use must be well insulated from the outside environment. For outdoor lighting will be sufficient degree of protection IP54 or higher. These lamps can withstand heavy rain and dusty wind.
The angle of dispersion of the light beam
LEDs are always attached to the substrate, which prevents the penetration of light on its reverse side. Therefore, without special devices emitting one crystal can only effectively illuminate the space ahead.
When labeling LED-lamps as the value of the angle at which half of the light flux pripadaet. It characterizes dissipated cap light
To increase the light angle scattering using special caps. But there are also LEDs on glass fibers or transparent substrates, allowing evenly illuminate all the surrounding space.
The lanterns, conversely, narrow LED beam is necessary, which is achieved primarily due to a special reflector. Therefore, the choice of form LED-lamp should be carried out only after the determination of the desired angle of the luminous flux.
Tips for choosing LED-lamps
When buying LED-devices it is important to pay attention both to their technical characteristics, as well as a number of other nuances.
The best way to choose a comfortable eye LED lamp - enable multiple models in the store and compare their luminosity
Presented tips will help to buy a quality lamp, which will last a long time and is comfortable to the eye.
- The packaging LED-lamps should be no sign of the ripple.
- The luminous flux must be greater than that of the replaced incandescent bulbs.
- It is recommended to compare the same wattage glow more in the store.
- In the presence of the switch with indicator preferably pre ensure correct operation with them LED-lamps.
- Ceiling lamps with a small angle dissipation of light can dazzle the eye.
- It is recommended to buy bulbs in large stores that provide a minimum guarantee of 2 years.
It is advisable to purchase lights only known producers because of cheap products little-known brands often do not correspond to the stated on the packaging characteristics.
Marking of LED devices
Common labeling LED-lamp does not exist. Each manufacturer puts in its model name Legend.
This marking refers to all types of lamps and helps to ensure compatibility between devices with different operating principles
But there are some common abbreviations, which are applied to the lamp, regardless of their type:
- E27, E14, E40 - screw-cap and the diameter in mm.
- GU5.3, GU10 and GU13 pin base and the size in mm between the contacts.
- A, C, R, CA, CF, G, P, S, T - a cap shape.
- A, A +, A ++ - degree of efficiency.
- 2700K-6000K - color temperature.
general specifications are also displayed on the lamp housing, typical electrical appliance: voltage and frequency, operating temperature, power, life in hours, the level of light and other options.
Leading manufacturers of LED-lamps
Manufacturers of LED-products from around the world value their image, because lamps tend to produce the parameters, which are fully consistent with the stated.
The best manufacturers of premium LED lamps are:
Prices for the products listed companies the highest, but also the quality of fixtures excellent.
The difference in cost for the same wattage of the best brands and the low-cost producers is only 30-70%, so it is recommended to buy more robust models
The average price segment in the manufacture of LED-lamps take the following companies:
These companies tend to use in the production of low cost components without compromising the quality of the strong. Often their lamps break in the first days of operation, but replaced under warranty with no problems.
Buy LED-products of little-known Chinese and domestic brands are not recommended because of their warranty period is rarely more than 4-6 months. In addition, it is not important brand image, and thus it is possible to freely use in the production of second-rate components.
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Comparative reviews - a great opportunity to compare the characteristics of different types of lamps to choose the best solutions.
Video # 1. Design and operation of LED-lamps:
Video # 2. Choose manufacturer of LED lamps:
Choosing a reliable LED-lamps - is not easy. Poor understanding in their technical characteristics, it is easy to buy low-quality or simply the wrong model. Therefore, the purchase of LED lights need to start only after careful consideration of the nature and get acquainted with the details on the parameters of the package.
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