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Natives from the Mediterranean and Southeast Asia, hyacinths bloom in early spring, striking in the air spillthe atom and the riot of color from white and all shades of blue to yellow and even thickly burgundy.
South of the North Caucasus fragrant flowers are found even in the wild. On the slopes of the mountains and in the valleys, one can see how the arrows with blue or pink buds make their way from under the snow. It is easy to grow hyacinths in open ground, provided mild winters and non-freezing soil.
Appearing above the ground, the bright green glossy leaves of the plant gradually open, and a brush-inflorescence with 20-30 buds starts to rise from the middle. The flowers of modern varieties of hyacinth have a tubular, funnel-shaped or bell-shaped form, can be ordinary and terry, and always have an unusually rich aroma.
As in the middle lane, where the soil invariably freezes, plant a hyacinth, how to care for the plant in order to get steadily lush bloom?
Selection of planting material
Hyacinths are typical bulbous plants. Perennial onion of this type:
- is fully formed by 4-6 years;
- is spherical with a prominent neck;
- consists of numerous scales, the inner ones being dense and fleshy, while the upper ones are thin and externally similar to parchment.
The growth of the bulb is due to the renewal formed in the bud core, consisting of several leaf buds and the future peduncle. Adult bulbs of 5–6 years form the rudiments of daughter bulbs, children, at the bottom under the accumulating scales.
Moreover, depending on the type of hyacinth, its bulbs can have different sizes. As a rule, the bulbs, giving terry flowers smaller than usual.
- If hyacinths are to be grown in open ground, by the time of planting the bulb must be elastic, with a diameter of at least 4 cm and consist of several surface scales, 6–10 accumulation scales and a fully formed bud.
- There should be no mechanical damage, mold, diaper rash or lethargy on the outer surface of the planting material.
- Looking at the bottom, high-quality bulbs, you can see the two-millimeter rudiments of the roots.
- The diameter of a quality bulb is one and a half times the size of the bottom.
Such planting material will not only successfully root and overwinter, but also in spring will give abundant flowering.
Choosing a place for growing hyacinths in open ground
Proper choice of a place for planting hyacinths in open ground and caring for plants before and after flowering is the key to long spring flowering.
The area where hyacinths are to grow should be well lit, which in spring, when there is little foliage, is not difficult to secure. But on the protection of the flower garden from the wind will have to take care.
Many gardeners make the mistake of planting bulbs under the canopy of trees or near tall shrubs. On the one hand, such large vegetation will actually protect the inflorescences from the cold wind and will not obscure until the foliage blooms. On the other hand, when it comes time to dig up hyacinths after flowering in the garden, there may not be enough nutrition for bulbs to replenish their strength, which will affect their quality.
- Hyacinths prefer loose soil. It is better to mix clay soil or black soil with peat or river sand.
- The growth of bulbs and the quality of flowering is positively affected by the abundance of high-quality organic matter, but feeding with fresh manure can harm hyacinths.
- The soil acidity should not exceed 6.5 units, if the pH level is higher, lime powder is added to the soil.
Hyacinth bulbs react extremely poorly to waterlogging. If the groundwater at the site approaches a surface closer than half a meter, high ridges are arranged for planting hyacinths or powerful drainage is needed. To ensure the outflow of spring or rain moisture, sometimes make a small bias.
It is better to carry out all the preparatory work for planting hyacinths in the open field and caring for onion bulbs at the end of summer. For a month or two, the soil will settle, and the autumn rooting of the bulbs will be faster and easier.
The soil is dug over hyacinths by 40 cm and at the same time, per square meter is applied:
- 10–15 kg of well-rotted manure or humus;
- sand and peat, depending on the type and condition of the soil;
- 250 grams of limestone or 15 grams of magnesium sulphate;
- 200 grams of sifted wood ash or 30 grams of potassium sulphate;
- from 60 to 80 grams of superphosphate.
If you are going to grow hyacinths in open ground on sand that is poor in minerals and organic matter, it is recommended to increase the amount of potassium and magnesium by one and a half times. The roots of the plant collect moisture and food in a radius of 15-20 cm from the bulb. Therefore, the wells for planting do approximately this size, deepening the bottom of the hyacinth by an average of 15 cm.
The smaller the planting material, the higher the bulbs are buried in the soil and thicker located on the flowerbed.
On low-lying areas, hyacinths can be planted on a layer of sand, pressing the bulb slightly into it. This protects the roots and the entire plant from rotting and possible infections. It is possible to speed up flowering by planting the bulbs on high ridges, which with the onset of spring will warm up much faster than a flat section.
Planting of hyacinths for cultivation in open ground
In most regions of Russia, hyacinths can be planted in the ground from early September to mid-October.
- If the bulbs fall into the ground earlier, or the autumn turns out to be unusually warm, the plants start growing and die when frost occurs.
- If you are late in planting, the bulbs will not have time to give roots to the moment when the ground is frozen.
Still, bulbs can be buried in the ground in the first weeks of November. For this, the landing site must be pre-folded with foliage or other suitable material and covered with foil. The soil will retain heat, and the bulbs that fall into it will start growing as it should.
In the winter, the landing sites of hyacinths should be sheltered from frost using mulch from peat, sawdust, foliage, or spruce leaves. The shelter will have to be removed in early spring in order not to damage the emerging shoots.
Growing hyacinths in the open field and caring for them
After planting hyacinths, leaving in the open field is reduced to regular feeding, soil loosening, weeding and watering, especially during the set of buds and flowering.
- Immediately after the emergence of sprouts, hyacinths require the first additional feeding at the rate of 30 grams of ammonium nitrate per square meter.
- The second application of fertilizer falls on the period of dyeing buds. In this case, under the hyacinths contribute not only 20 grams of ammonium nitrate per meter, but also 30 grams of potassium chloride and 40 grams of superphosphate.
- When flowering is completed, the plantation is fertilized at the rate of 40 grams of superphosphate and the same amount of potassium chloride per square meter.
All dressings are placed in between the rows or the space between plants, seeding 10 cm, and then the plantation is watered. And the care of hyacinths after flowering in the garden also begins with watering, which is extremely necessary in the first two weeks after the peduncles have dried.
Hyacinth care after flowering and bulbs cleaning
Hyacinth blooming is luxurious but transient. After the flower stalks dry out, the plant quickly loses its decorative effect. When the hyacinths have bloomed, what to do next in the garden? First of all, especially if the spring planting of bulbs is combined with some other ornamental cultures, the locations of hyacinths should be noted. After all, soon, when the leaves are wilted, it will be extremely difficult to find them. Then the plants that restore power after flowering, do not bypass the quality watering and fertilizing.
If the bulbs tolerate the winter well in the Mediterranean climate and are again pleased with the bright arrows of the inflorescences, then in the middle zone of heat during the rest period hyacinths are clearly lacking. So, do you need to dig hyacinths every year? Yes, it is such a measure in the middle lane that will help create the necessary conditions for the bulbs for the formation and development of bud replacement and the buds of the future floral arrow.
If healthy bulbs of hyacinths in a temperate climate, not digging for the summer, leave for wintering in the ground, their flowering next year will be much weaker than before. Only gardeners in the Kuban, the North Caucasus, the Crimea and in the south of the Black Soil Region can not burden themselves with annual digging of bulbs, and then only during a fairly hot summer. When to dig up hyacinths after flowering in the garden?
The best time to extract the bulbs is the last decade of June or the first days of July. By this time, the leaves noticeably turn yellow and weaken at the base, now they will be easy to remove.
Storage of hyacinth bulbs
When the bulbs are decontaminated, washed and dried:
- inspect them, separating diseased or damaged specimens from digging;
- is separated requiring rearing children;
- planting material is treated with pests and diseases for bulbous.
Next, for a week, the bulbs are kept at a temperature of about + 18–20 ° C in a ventilated room and laid out in paper bags or containers in 1–2 layers.
Hyacinth care after flowering in the garden and storing the bulbs is the most serious event for the florist.
During this time, the hyacinth's covering scales dry up, the plant is acclimatized and ready for the next storage stage, when for two months the bulbs must be kept at a temperature of about + 30 ° C, high enough humidity and good ventilation. A month before planting, the air temperature is lowered to +17 ° C, so that the planting material can more easily transfer the upcoming hyacinth planting in open ground.