- 1. Why do plants need light?
- 2. Types of artificial lighting of greenhouses
- 3. Day and night lighting in a greenhouse
- 4. Light ranges, their influence on plants
- 5. Features of the choice of lighting in a greenhouse
- 6. Lamps for lighting a greenhouse
7. What else to consider when lighting a greenhouse?
- Incandescent lamps for greenhouses
- Mercurypressure for greenhouses
- Fluorescent lamps for greenhouses
- High-pressure sodium lamps for greenhouses
- Metal-halogen lamps for greenhouses
- LED lamps for greenhouses
When choosing the location of the greenhouse premises, the illumination of the agrofan must be taken into account. Gardeners know that the "right" light is of great importance in the development of vegetation and is a guarantee of excellent yield. Before installing artificial lighting in a greenhouse, you should think over everything and make the right choice of lamps, as well as know the basic requirements for installing electrical appliances.
1. Why do plants need light?
Light is a kind of food for plants, necessary for growth, development, and increase in their mass. This is due to photosynthesis - the physiological process of absorption of light energy by green leaves. As a result of this physiological process, oxygen is released into the atmosphere. The activity of photosynthesis directly depends on the sunlight .Of great importance is the ambient temperature and watering. The determining factor in this matter is the spectral composition of the light, as well as the intervals of its absence.
- All plants consume light differently. In addition, their "appetite" changes throughout life. Vegetation can be the so-called "long day" .In this case, the supply of artificial “sun” is increased with the help of electric illumination lamps, and such prolonged illumination improves the growth and flowering of vegetation. This group of flora includes crops such as cabbage, onions, garlic, and various root vegetables. These plants "want" about 12 hours of the sun.
- For “short day” plants a long light delivery is more likely to harm and a strictly designated time should be exercised.8-10 hours is enough for these crops. These include cucumbers, tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, lettuce, zucchini, beans. But with the onset of cold weather there may be problems with a lack of light. For this, additional special lighting is installed in greenhouses in winter, which will compensate for the lack of light and will have a beneficial effect on the development of crops.
- There is also the group of “neutral plants” , for example, a rose - its colors do not affect the phases of light and dark. However, the growth and height of the culture still depend on the light delivery scheme - a special programmed supply schedule is created.
On average, the electric lighting standards for greenhouses imply that plant crops need to be under the "sun" somewhere 12-16 hours a day. But 6 hours from 24 plants need a “dream”.
2. Types of artificial lighting of greenhouses
The first light regime includes the operation of light bulbs for vegetation in the required amount of light flux. The density of the luminous flux is about 400-1000 mmol / m².
Another way of illumination is the beam of light periodically .Such illumination is carried out at night, thereby artificially prolonging the day. The use of such illumination allows you to slow down or speed up the flowering time. The consumption of light energy is much lower - from 5 to 10 mmol / m².
3. Daylight and night lighting in the greenhouse
During natural lighting , greenhouse lamps with a density of 400-1000 mmol / m² are used. To extend the night glow, photoperiod artificial lighting of greenhouses with a dose of energy of 5-10 mmol / m2 is practiced.
When calculating the lighting of a greenhouse, plants with different needs for light are indicated. In greenhouse lighting, this factor is also considered. Designs with an efficient built-in method for controlling the processes of flowering and flora growth are common - cyclical light delivery .The essence of the work of such a system is the short-term highlighting of a regulated period of time.
A uniform light has a huge impact on the development of crops. For this function are responsible for numerous lamps in greenhouses. Here uses special reflectors with the function of light reflection. With their help, the same light is supplied to plant crops that grow under them.
4. Light ranges, their influence on plants
When planning to buy lighting for a greenhouse or a greenhouse, these indicators must also be taken into account:
- 280-320 nm is a harmful interval for flora;
- 320-400 nm - have a regulatory value, only a few percent is needed;
- 400-500 nm - “blue”, needed for regulation and photosynthesis;
- 500-600 nm - "green", is considered useful for photosynthesis of the lower main dense leaves;
- 600-700 nm - “red”, a significant function in photosynthesis, regulation, and plant development;
- 700-750 nm - in a different way, “far red”, in the general light spectrum a few% will be enough for regulatory action;
- 1200-1600 nm - you can notice an increase in the speed of all biochemical photoreactions.
After the construction of the greenhouse premises, you need to choose the lighting, taking into account the above parameters.
The whole point of spectral lighting in a polycarbonate greenhouse is to subject it to a certain type of radiation at a certain level of cultural development. However, no matter how brilliant this idea, it has its weak points. With this “ideal” coverage, the vegetation is undergoing the stress of , and as a result the fruits ripen ahead of time. If you look at productivity, then this event, of course, pleases, but in terms of quality and taste, such “early” fruits lose in those grown under natural conditions.
5. Features of the choice of lighting in the greenhouse
- For installation of artificial lighting in the greenhouse, wiring is carried out. First of all, the calculation of the illumination plan is made taking into account the required amount of power consumption.
- The main cable to the greenhouse is conducted. This is possible in two ways: underground or mounted .Option one - underground wiring is not laid by a regular cable, but an expensive wire with a special protective screen is used.
- The wiring is then carried out in the greenhouse. The overall safety and improved quality of the entire system require the use of a grounded cable.
- It is important to know that the cross section of the wire should not be abutting, a gap in the direction of the increase in power of about 20% is necessary. The largest expense of electricity - with its inclusion. As a result, the cross section of the wiring and take more.
- Inside the greenhouse, it is advisable to place the wires in a special housings sold on the market.
- The main cable must be connected to the shield, and then do the wiring. Equip the dashboard with a switch, which will help, if necessary, instantly de-energize the entire power line.
- All wiring-related work must be carried out by in strict compliance with the general fire safety regulations of .It must be remembered that in greenhouses high humidity. Make exactly all the wire connections. It is more expedient to use special terminal blocks with the help of which reliable fastening will be ensured. Diligently isolate the location of the wire harness.
- To work in the greenhouse, purchase devices that meet the standards of moisture resistance.
6. Lamps for lighting the greenhouse
More details on the popular lamps for greenhouses, which are sold freely in large quantities. Each individual farm buys lighting electrical appliances based on the needs of its greenhouse or greenhouse.
It is quite possible to make lamps and, in general, all lighting for the greenhouse with your own hands, .Keep in mind that such a process will require good training, knowledge and experience. When selecting lamps, it is necessary to pay attention to the manufacturer, as well as technical features. It is recommended to give preference to products of reputable brands. It is desirable to have a control gear, with a function of the distribution of light to electric lamps with control on / off.
If you do not want to bother with a long and rather scrupulous process of arrangement of fixtures, then in such cases, ready-made ones are usually used. Electric bulbs can be built into the lamp or made a separate unit. Such a system will provide a uniform stream of light. A consultant will help to make accurate calculations of electric lamps for a specific greenhouse. It is important to choose a lamp with the appropriate power.
Incandescent bulbs for greenhouses
These lamps perfectly illuminate the greenhouse, plus heat the air. The main disadvantage of is the high consumption of electrical energy .Incandescent bulbs have a light spectrum of 600 nm. It is not entirely useful for plants, but not critical.
These lamps in excessive quantities “supply” red, orange, infrared radiation. The prolonged work of such a spectrum of light affects the shoots of growing plants, they lengthen intensively, the green mass increases and foliage is deformed. Stalks may burn or overheat.
This lighting in the greenhouse cannot be used for the transplant material. Not recommended for fruit plants, for example, cucumbers, tomatoes and others.
Incandescent bulbs are great for forcing green plants - onions, parsley. A similar light source is placed at a distance of about 50 cm from the flora. In the absence of the sun is done dawn lighting within 6-18 hours.
High pressure mercury lamps for greenhouses
High pressure mercury lamps are excellent as productive lighting for in a greenhouse in winter. This light source belongs to the alternative, its distinguishing features are efficiency, high efficiency, extensive use and easy installation.
Some luminaire models are specially purchased to create artificial lighting for the greenhouse. Lamps( DRLF) have the beneficial effects of photosynthesis and create optimal air exchange.
Mercury lamps are strongly heated by and are characterized by high levels of ultraviolet photoradiation , which slows down the development of plants. Such a feature is necessary when the seedlings grow or over-stretching.
The main disadvantage of such lamps is the presence of mercury, so it is imperative to follow all the rules for handling and storing it. Disposal of this lamp is a difficult question. Throwing the lamp in the trash container is strictly prohibited. You also need to know that in case of mechanical damage, or if the lamp is broken, then it will be almost impossible to collect all the mercury, because of this, you will have to get rid of vegetation and all the items that could get into the substance.
Fluorescent lamps for greenhouses
The light source is characterized by a set of positive qualities: with low price , practicality, durability and copes well with the tasks set before it.
The main minus includes the impressive dimensions of of such structures and at the same time low light output. The brightness of the lamp is completely dependent on the supplied voltage. With its deficiency - the lamp may not turn on.
Competition for cost effectiveness has created energy-saving fixtures. Installation of conventional fluorescent lamps is a bit complicated and is performed with the use of additional equipment: in some cases, installation is performed horizontally with rectangular fittings, in others - vertically using special cabinets, this depends on the needs of farmed green "residents".This type of lamp will be acceptable for owners of small greenhouses and greenhouses.
High pressure sodium lamps for greenhouses
A fairly economical option for lighting .Lamps inherent high light output with a consumption of 400 watts. Under the illumination of the greenhouse, a monochromatic light field is formed, with a yellow-orange stream. Special sodium lamps are best suited for large industrial greenhouses. In addition to saving energy, lamps are famous for their long service life.
The light spectrum of lamps is very similar to the natural solar glow and this has a beneficial effect on greenhouse plants. At the same time, light bulbs are weak in the blue spectrum, which is of great importance in the vegetative growth of green crops.
Mirror sodium lamps produced specifically for the greenhouse environment. The mirror surface reflects light and this leads to an increase in efficiency, and the rotating base correctly distributes the luminous flux. Sodium lamps are regulated using the ballast.
This lamp is quite easy to install .Its installation is carried out by connecting the control gear. Then the lamp turns on, and the light rays are directed in the desired direction. To perform the lighting in the greenhouse, you should correctly select the control gear, the pulse-igniter.
However, this type of connection can be attributed to the disadvantages. When connecting, it is necessary to have some elements in the circuit - IZU, as well as a control gear, this can be the only obstacle in creating the lighting of the greenhouse with your own hands.
Metal Halide Lamps for Greenhouses
Equipped with a fairly wide range of light and an adjustable power range. Powerful lamps are popular in lighting greenhouses and are considered optimal for them. Radiation of lamps as close as possible to natural sunlight .
Using such a light source, plants are guaranteed to receive good nutrition and development. Lighting devices of this type are characterized by fragility and considerable cost. Often there are limitations associated with the position of combustion - this causes the inconvenience of their operation.
The selection and installation of photo sources in the greenhouse is due to many factors: the “appetite” of the cultivated plants, the area of the greenhouse or the greenhouse, the climate zone. A wide range of possible lighting devices and their competent operation will allow you to organize optimal conditions for all types of plants.
LED lamps for greenhouses
Greenhouse lighting with LED lamps is considered to be particularly sensitive among its counterparts. The main advantage of this backlight is the ability of to illuminate plants with a specific type of luminous flux - red or blue, as well as adapt to the required spectrum depending on the conditions and combine light. Such LED illumination of the greenhouse allows for the amplification or relaxation of the number of light rays of different lengths.
LEDs give a lot of light at fairly low voltages and are available for all available types of caps. You can buy ready-made LED devices consisting of a lamp with a durable body previously created for it and a driver.
LED bulbs are known for their resistance to a variety of mechanical defects , durability and economy relative to the consumed electrical energy. The operating time of the lamp is approximately 3000-5000 hours, then it is completely replaced.
The installation of LED lamps and electric lamps is carried out in the traditional way - in linear systems that are installed using a flexible cable. This allows at the right time to adjust the orientation and height of the electric lamps.
The only negative point of LED lamps - is the rather high cost of .It is recommended to buy lamps not of the Chinese assembly, but phyto-lamps of domestic production, because the radiation spectrum in these devices is already adjusted to our latitudes. With the use of LED devices in industrial greenhouses, less chemicals are used that affect plant growth.
7. What else to consider when lighting a greenhouse?
There are several important points that you need to know and take into account when creating lighting in the greenhouse:
- Green vegetation catches light, the waves of which have a length of 400-700 nm. It should be understood that the infrared and ultraviolet photo emission also affects the growth of crops in the greenhouse.
- is distinguished by two types of illumination : photoperiodic and permanent type highlighting. Their use is due to the crops that are grown.
- High pressure sodium bulbs are not the most ideal source of light in a greenhouse or greenhouse. Choose a variety of lighting, taking into account the type of plants grown.
- No need to save on high-quality light, because decent equipment is the key to creating the best greenhouse conditions, as well as uniform lighting of vegetation.
- When installing the luminaires, you must strictly adhere to all safety regulations, as well as comply with labor protection standards.
- The lighting for the greenhouse is used in fact the same as the lighting for greenhouses. Do not ignore the quality of lighting - you will be ensured a great harvest.