Almond is a tall tree or shrub , which belongs to the genus Drain and the Pink family. Many believe that almond is a nut, but in fact it is not, it is a stone fruit.
A description of the
to ensure a beautiful place to keep your eyes clean.meters, and shrubs 2-3 meters. The rhizome consists of 3-5 skeletal roots that are able to penetrate deep into the ground, thereby protecting themselves from drying out.
The plant is quite branchy, while it consists of two types of shoots, which include shorter generative and elongated vegetative.
The dark green leaves are attached on brown petioles and have a lanceolate form with a pointed tip.
Flowers such as plants consist of 5 petals painted in white or light pink color. On average, the diameter of a single flower is 2.5 centimeters.
The fruit of the almond is a dry and velvety to the touch drupe with a leathery and fleshy green pericarp.
After drying, the flesh is very easily separated from the edible oval bone, which is 2.5–4 centimeters long. It is characterized by the presence of a large number of furrows.
The first fruiting occurs at 4-5 years of life of the tree , but in full force it appears only at 10-12 years. With good care, the shrub bears fruit for 30-50 years.
In addition to obtaining the fruits of , almonds are also grown for decorative purposes, .Pink or white foam of flowers of such a tree not only decorate the garden in early spring, but also exude a unique scent.
Almond is a plant whose pollination needs to be taken care of in advance. There are two types of trees:
- first need to cross-pollinate , therefore, at least 3 pollinators are planted next to the fruiting almond, the flowering time of which must be the same;The second
- are pollinated with the help of the bees , therefore it is desirable that there are 2-3 hives near the plant.
Initially, it was believed that almonds could only be grown in the southern regions, but with the development of scientific technology, breeders have developed varieties that, with adequate shelter, can survive even the most severe winter.
Sweet varieties of almonds are grown in culture, the following species are particularly popular:
- Jubilee - the variety blooms rather late, has good drought resistance. The skin is of medium thickness, and the core is sweet, dense and dry;
- The Adyudag is a late-ripening and skoroplodny variety, the first fruiting begins at 3 years of the tree's life. Fruits covered with soft shells are a dense, slightly flattened oval core of light brown color;
- Sevastopol - this almond can boast excellent resistance to heat and drought, besides, it brings a huge amount of harvest. The fruit shell is soft, and the kernels themselves are dense, sweet, painted in white weave;
- Mangul - this late-ripening variety is not afraid of drought. Solid and dense cores with increased lubricity are covered with a soft shell. A distinctive feature is good immunity to most diseases and pests;
- Dessert - this self-infertile almond is well suited for growing in central Russia, because it is not afraid of return frost and frostbite of flower buds. The shell is soft and rough. The oval-shaped kernels are very sweet and oily. As a pollinator for this variety are usually used Almond Seaside or Spicy.
Rules for planting an almond tree in open ground
It is best to grow almonds from annual seedlings, which are placed in open ground in early March or at the end of November.
As a place for planting plants choose a sunny area, protected from drafts and gusting wind, almonds can also grow well in partial shade.
Before planting, it is necessary to prepare a pit. In the autumn, two weeks before planting, they dig out pits, the diameter and depth of which will be 50-70 centimeters.
If the almonds are planted in groups , then the distance between individual trees should be 3-4 meters, and between rows of 5-6 meters.
The drainage layer consisting of crushed stone or gravel is laid on the bottom of each pit. Then they are placed fertile soil, consisting of the following elements:
- 1 part of the sand;
- 2 pieces of humus;
- 3 pieces of leafy ground;
- 5-6 kilograms of rotted manure or humus;
- 500 grams of superphosphate;
- in the presence of acidic soil, 200-300 grams of dolomite flour or lime additionally contribute to it.
After the pit is sufficiently infused , you can start planting an tree:
- initially support a height of 1-1.5 meters in the center of the pit;
- then build a hill out of the ground around it;
- seedling is placed on a mound in such a way that the root neck is 3-5 centimeters higher than the ground;
- in the next stage, the pit is filled with fertile soil, tamped and watered thoroughly;
- as soon as the water is fully absorbed, the seedling is tied to a support and mulch the soil with a 3-5 cm layer of peat or dry leaves.
During the spring planting, the pit is also prepared in the autumn.
How to plant almonds:
Almond care consists of several standard procedures that must be performed when growing almost all fruit trees.
For best fruiting, almonds need regular watering of .Young plants are watered every 2 weeks, and adults 1 time in 20-25 days.
Loosening a wheel circle has a beneficial effect on tree growth. The first time such work is carried out at the end of March to a depth of 10-12 centimeters.
Then, during the entire vegetation period, another 3-4 loosening is carried out, but already to a depth of 6-8 centimeters. It is also necessary to timely remove weeds.
In the autumn, the following mixture is introduced into the near-ground circle for digging:
- 1 kilogram of manure;
- 20 grams of potassium sulphide;
- 40 grams of superphosphate.
The first 5-7 years of the life of trees between the rows is recommended to grow green manure.
In Siberia, without a shelter, you can grow Leaf, steppe, low or Russian almonds. In the central zone three-lobed almonds grow well.
trimming In early spring, before budding , remove all frozen, broken, diseased or deforming branches.
After the end of flowering, you can proceed to formative pruning , during which 3 tiers of skeletal branches are derived:
- in the first year choose three branches, located 15-20 centimeters from each other and shorten them to a length equal to 15 centimeters;
- the next 2-3 years on the central conductor form 3 tiers, located at a distance of 20-30 centimeters;
- insignificant shoots pinch several times over the summer for crown formation;
- the rest is cut to 50-60 centimeters;
- at the end of the work, the central conductor is shortened so that the distance between it and the upper tier is 55-60 centimeters.
In the autumn, after the leaves of fall off, they carry out sanitary and rejuvenating pruning. That is, remove all dry, diseased, broken, growing in the wrong direction and thickening the crown branches.
It is worth remembering that when pruning thick branches, the cutting place must be treated with a garden cook.
leaves fall. Diseases and pests
The following types of diseases are most commonly found on almonds:
- Cercosporosis - initially brown spots 2-4 millimeters in diameter appear on the leaves, where you can see gray on the fly. Then the center of the sheet dries and falls.
- Scab is a fungal disease that affects the leaves, flowers and shoots of a tree.
- Rust - red spots appear on the upper side of the sheet, and brown pads on the inside. Over time, the leaves dry and fall off.
- Holey Spot - the disease affects all parts of the tree. You can find it on the leaves, because they appear characteristic spots of red shades with a dark border at the edges.
- Gray rot - brown spots and gray fluffy patina appear on the shoots.
Among the pests on the almond, insects such as the seed, aphid, leafworm or spider mite can be found.
As a pest control, trees must be treated with insecticides, which include Actellic, Fufanon, Tagore.
Against aphids use Biotlin or Antitlin. You can get rid of spider mites with Apollo, Agravertin or Fitoverm.
As you know, it is much better to prevent any trouble than to cure it, so will be extremely effective preventive measures:
- in early spring, before the formation of buds, the tree and the soil around it is treated with 1 percent Brodskoy liquid solution;
- after the end of fallout processing should be repeated;
- the best preventive measure will be compliance with agricultural cultivation. This includes proper watering, weed removal and sanitary pruning.
Remove almonds only after the green outer shell turns dark and becomes easily separated from the core.
Using a flowering tree in landscape design
The almond tree has a very beautiful and unusual bloom, for which it is often planted for decorative purposes. Early flowers can only decorate a waking garden and create a spring mood.
The almond tree is an amazing flowering plant, , which can be grown in modern conditions anywhere in the country. With proper implementation of all recommendations, you can get very tasty bone fruit.