Today, about 1000 species of ficus are known to science, but only some varieties are adapted to house breeding. Some species of ficus with photos and names will be presented in this article - they are most often used for home maintenance. This evergreen member of the mulberry family is liked by many flower growers.
- Ficus - types, photos and names
- in the house - signs
It is easy to take care of decorative foliage, you just need to follow certain conventions relating to a single species. Due to the low requirements for care, along with the external attractiveness, it decorates the interior of the dwelling, the atmosphere of any office, shopping center or cafe.
All members of this family have a well-developed root system, the leaves have a dense structure, a bright green color( some varieties may have specks, edging), a different shape.
The plant can be designed as a indoor tree, a drop ampel form or miniature bonsai. The natural habitat allows them to reach enormous sizes, to become full-fledged trees. Domesticated representatives of the family of ficus have acceptable dimensions for the room, grow slowly.
Ficus - where is growing and where is its birthplace? He prefers tropical countries, the coasts of the Pacific, Indian Oceans, the Mediterranean, South Africa. It is also distributed in the Crimea, in the South Caucasus, Central Asia, China, and India. The tropical rainforests of Malaysia, the Philippines, where ficuses grow, are the home of the plant.содерж to content ↑
Ficus - types, photos and names
Representatives of the family of ficus we often grow at home, moreover - they are among the most loved ones. Shrubs of different varieties are not always similar to each other, but they are united by almost the same method of cultivation, similar requirements for care.
One of the most popular species, Benjamin Ficus, has universal dimensions, resembles a small tree.
This variety has several sub-varieties that differ in leaf shape. The egg-shaped form of Benjamin's leaf has a slightly pointed tip, it can be a rich green shade or have white blotches, a fringing( variegated varieties).To make the crown beautiful, frequent pruning is recommended. The trunks are amenable to weaving: gardeners often use this technique to achieve an unusual decorative effect. To do this, plant several seedlings together, also this species is used to create bonsai.
Ficus rubber, also elastic, elastic or elastic - the most common variety for pot growing. Buddhists worship it, they consider it sacred. In its homeland( northeast India, southern Indonesia), it can reach a height of 30 meters. This variety forms branches as it grows, and also forms aerial roots, especially at high humidity. Due to this structure of the root system, the ficus elastic is also called the "snake tree".
At home, it does not give color, the leaves are rather large, oval-shaped with a sharp tip. Its name Melanie is derived from the milky white juice, which sometimes stands out on the surface of the leaf. Juice contains latex, which is why not so long ago this variety was used to produce rubber on an industrial scale.
Ficus elastic can not be overwetted, especially with the onset of winter.
A very interesting variety of dwarf varieties - creeping rubber plant.
It has creeping creeping shoots, roots with suckers that can cling to any surface. It grows well in sunlit places, loves moisture. Creeping ficus has small leathery oval-shaped leaves( 2-2.5 cm long, 1-1.5 cm wide - macrophylla) or even smaller ones( 0.5-0.7 cm - minima).The stems of this groundcover variety are prone to lignification. In bright light( but not in direct sunlight), the variegated pattern of the leaves becomes even brighter, and if it is lacking, it can become just green.
Another name is Pumila ficus( ficus pumila), the most popular for home breeding are: Sunny( with an uneven white border on the edges of the sheet),
White Sunny( with a continuous white or cream border), Dorte(with white spots on the sheet).Dwarf creeping feels equally comfortable in hanging pots( like an ampelous plant) and ordinary pots.
The dwarf ficus can be twisted around special decorative poles, setting the right direction for the shoots.
The name Ficus Lirovidny is obtained precisely because of its leaves, which reach 50 cm in length( 25 cm in width) and have wavy edges. This variety boasts the largest wavy leaves. From it grows a tree of fairly large size, which does not like the neighborhood, preferring to stand apart from the others. It does not belong to banyanas( plants with aerial roots).It has an upright trunk, characteristic leaves with green veins on a dark green background, in its shape, which expands to the top of the sheet, resembling a violin.
Ficus with the female name Natasha belongs to the sub-genres of Benjamin.
This is an evergreen perennial shrub that can grow up to 2 meters in room conditions. The bush has many thin shoots with densely growing small leaves, which are the smallest among the rest of the Benjamin species. The leaves themselves have a leathery structure, ellipsoid shape with a pointed tip. The color of the leaves can vary from white-green to rich green.
Ficus Natasha does not like drafts, direct sunlight, frequent movements, prefers to grow in one permanent place. He likes irrigation( twice a day), regular shaking of the crown( for airing lush foliage).
Microcarp variety looks very similar to one of the varieties of Benjamin. It is characterized by an accelerated growth of the root system, so it is often used to create bonsai. Microcarp leaves can be of different shapes: elongated, elongated, oval. On the shelves of our flower shops you can often see this variety grown in a special way, at which the roots resembling the roots of ginseng become visible. On the label that is attached to the pot it is written - Ficus microcarpa Ginseng( ficus microcarp ginseng).
To achieve this form of roots, it is necessary to do complex agrotechnical work with the use of hormonal supplements and appropriate fertilizers. Under natural conditions, this plant reaches a height of 25 meters, it is also called a “strangler” because of the tendency to twist the trunks around a number of growing trees and prevent their further growth and development. Ficus Ginseng is used as a billet material for the subsequent formation of a plant to get a bonsai style.
We should also mention the formation of bonsai - miniature trees, which by their appearance repeat their large counterparts( roots and crown).Translation from Chinese "bonsai" is "grown in a tray."For blanks, varieties of ordinary trees or bushes are used, but with the use of clever cutting techniques, wire stitching, special irrigation techniques, amazing mini-gardens are created. For the cultivation of bonsai ficus optimally ficus - it has all the required characteristics that are important for this area.
Ficus bonsai is created from varieties:
The Robusta variety is a variety of rubber plant ficus.
Under natural conditions, it can grow up to 50-60 meters in height( but more often there are instances of 30-40 meters), it is the highest representative of this family. This is one of the most unpretentious species, novice flower growers, lovers of ficus, recommended to start their activities with it. Ficus Robusta has fleshy large leaves( approximately 30 cm long), which can be either monochrome( dark green) or with white or yellow patterns. It looks great in outdoor tanks, loves frequent, but moderate watering, not too picky about the light.
Another representative of the Benjamin variety - Kinki.
This is a dwarf variety with small narrow leaves of light green color and cream edging along the edges. The photophilous Kinki, who prefers diffuse lighting, does not like hot air( do not place near batteries or heaters), as well as drafts. It is extremely undesirable to move it from place to place( it can drop foliage).He will feel comfortable with moderate regular irrigation and irrigation.
In the natural environment, a characteristic feature of the Bengal ficus is banyan - a special form of the root system structure, in which one plant looks like a forest from a variety of trees growing nearby.
A species of Bengal Ficus has large( up to 20 cm long), slightly velvety leaves, at home it grows up to 2 meters in a few years. He likes good lighting, sunlight, although he needs to shade it in order to avoid burns on the leaves.
Light is the main component of the harmonious development of this flower, if natural lighting is poor, then the installation of an additional source of artificial lighting becomes relevant. It is recommended not too active watering.
Melanie cultivar belongs to the family of rubber-fig rubber plants, once it was also used to produce rubber, but now it is a full-fledged ornamental plant.
Ficus Melanie are neat bushes with voluminous crown, they look equally harmonious in offices, home interior. This grade is unpretentious in leaving, loves frequent spraying, but prefers moderate watering, from too bright lighting starts to hurt. It has glossy leaves of a leathery structure( 12-15 cm long), a graceful trunk, well-shaped crown. Allergy sufferers should take a closer look at this variety before the establishment, as its milky juice is toxic and may cause allergies.
Ficus Moclame is a tall bush with a neat compact crown.
The shoots of this plant are directed upwards, the oval leaves of rich green color have a very dense structure - slightly resemble plastic. This flower loves diffused lighting, when there is a lack of light, Moclam leaves turn pale, and with sufficient light they become saturated. This variety requires moderate watering and irrigation( especially in summer).содерж to content ↑
Ficus in the house - signs
Ficus are living plants, like all living things, they carry an energy charge. Whether it is positive or negative is worth finding out. Sometimes in the relevant forums you can read the concerns of the owners, the debate about whether ficuses can be kept at home.
If we consider the signs, then it is worth distinguishing several basic, most often mentioned:
- If you are experiencing a sudden rush to acquire this plant, then it is likely that soon you will expect replenishment in the family. However, in order for this sign to start “working”, the ficus should be presented to you, and the donor himself should be a positive, pleasant person.
- If a girl or woman wants to get married, then she should personally grow a ficus from a small petiole. Only she should take care of the plant, it is also recommended to communicate directly with the flower, that is, layering of favorable energy on it.
- If you place a pot with a flower in the kitchen, the financial situation of the family will improve, and incomes will grow. If you do not sleep well or are under stress, put it in your bedroom.
- This plant attracts luck, sets the atmosphere in a favorable way, optimizes energy in general.
According to biological studies, it was proved that the presence of ficus cleans the air in the room, saturates it with oxygen( it releases phytoncides).This plant is able to absorb a variety of compounds harmful to humans( phenol, formaldehyde, benzene, trichlorethylene, others).Special enzymes that contain plant leaves can transform individual toxic elements into sugars and amino acids.
There is information on the use of ficus in folk medicine in Eastern countries: it cures skin, oncological, intestinal diseases. However, you should not experience little-known methods of treatment, and it is better to consult with a competent doctor.
A plant can be harmful only if a person is allergic to it. Certain types of ficuses, the same rubber-bearing ones, secrete juice, which can have a detrimental effect on the well-being of people with asthma. This juice can not taste, it is also undesirable contact with the skin.
Be doubly careful if you have small children, curious pets - contact with this plant may not have the best effect on their health.
As we can see, there are much more positive qualities of ficus than possible prohibitions to its maintenance at home.
This is a beautiful evergreen, the care of which will not require you to spend a lot of time or some tricky conditions of maintenance. Any member of this family can decorate your home with its decoration. We hope that the varieties of ficus described here with photos and names will help you to make the right choice and to settle in your home a new green friend.
Below are the varieties of ficus - photos and names of varieties: