Najbolj nevarne bolezni krompirja in njihov nadzor

Potatoes are very popular among even the most sophisticated gourmets. And although it is a simple vegetable, which is not uncommon, it still cannot always please the summer residents, as it is attacked by diseases that can significantly reduce crop yields.

Contents

  • most common diseases of potato and methods of dealing with them
    • blight
    • Common types of scab
      • Black scab
      • Powdery
      • Silver
    • L-virus
    • wireworms
    • nematode
    • Altenarioz
    • Black leg
    • Cancer potatoes
    • Pests Potato
      • Colorado beetle
      • potato moth
      • Medvedka
    • Varieties of potato rot
      • Ring
      • Brown
      • Mixed internal
      • Wet
      • Dry
    • Mosaic karOphelia
      • Wrinkled
      • virus banded mosaic
  • potato diseases: classification
    • Why potato brown spots
  • Insecticides

most common potato disease and methods of combating them

Next will be discussed about the most common diseases and pests that like to profit potatoes and thathow quick and easy to get rid of them.

Late blight

Late blight is , one of the most insidious diseases of , which can destroy 15% of the entire potato crop.

Its appearance is caused by lower fungi, such as oomycetes. If microorganisms are present in the soil, then the probability of infection with this disease is very high.

Phytophthoracosis on

potatoes In addition, these mushrooms are very fond of moisture, because summer rain and temperatures over 15 degrees are excellent for spreading them.

It is not at all difficult to detect the signs of late blight, as the leaves begin to turn black and you can see white spores on them, which indicate the presence of fungi.

The difficulty lies in the fact that wind and rain water can easily spread these disputes across the field. Tubers blacken and carry a greater threat to neighboring bushes.

To avoid infection, the following precautions should be taken:

  • potatoes should be planted in the same place for no more than 3 years in a row;
  • landing is better to make on the plain, as well as in a sunny and well-ventilated place;
  • should observe the distance between the bushes ;
  • Do not plant seeds already affected;
  • before planting potatoes must be thoroughly dried in fresh air with a temperature of 18 degrees for 2 weeks;
  • so that the tubers are resistant to the disease, they are treated with Immunocytophyte or Agat-25K .

Common scab

Potatoes also suffer from 3 types of scab: black, powdery and silver.

Black Scab

As it is also called rozoktonioz, can give summer residents a lot of trouble. The disease affects tubers and tops.

In the early stages of , due to scab, the growth of of potatoes can stop, and over time the culture will completely die. The disease manifests itself in the form of black spots that resemble ulcers.

Excellent conditions for the development of black scab are increased humidity and air temperature not lower than 18 degrees.

How to get rid of rozoktonioza, you will be prompted by the following tips:

  • Do not plant infected tubers into the ground;
  • do not sow in the same place for several years in a row.
  • if the soil is affected by black scab, then should be treated with planting material by Prestige or Maxim .
Black Scab

Powdery

Also infects leaves and tubers. On the potato, you can see red ulcers, which eventually destroy the plant. The disease is transmitted by air or through humus or chicken droppings.

To combat this disease, a special solution is used, for the preparation of which they take:

  • 10 liters of water;
  • 3% bleach;
  • 5% copper sulfate.

For irrigation use 300 ml for each bush .

Powdery Scab

Silvery

A cunning disease that can dry the stem or the tuber itself. It manifests itself in the form of silver spots that can cover almost 50% of the surface.

The disease, which is suitable for a temperature of at least 3 degrees Celsius and a humidity of at least 80%.And disputes live in tubers for a very long time, because they easily tolerate even cold.

In the fight against this disease will help such means as:

  • Maxim , they process the tubers 3 days before planting and thoroughly dried in the sun.
  • Quadrix , which is applied to the plant just before planting.

L-virus

L-virus is one of the most insidious viruses, affecting about 30% of the potato crop. There are 2 ways to transmit the virus: aphid and contact with infected plants.

Disease symptoms depend on the variety and growing conditions. Often it can be wrinkled, spots or dying off the foliage.

To destroy the virus, it is necessary: ​​

  • not to use infected tubers as planting material;
  • to continuously combat aphids and cicadas, in which such means as Aktara and Karate Zeon will help.

Wire

Not less trouble gardeners delivers wire - the larva of the click beetle. The beetle in April carries out its flight and lays eggs in the soil, therefore there is no such place that it would not be affected by it. However, be sure to control its population, otherwise it can lead to disastrous results.

Potatoes struck with wireworm will not be stored for long, because will quickly rot .

The favorite habitat for the wireworm is the wheatgrass rhizome, dense thickets and acidic soil.

To reduce the population of these beetles, the following rules should be followed:

  • it is necessary to change the landing site every 3 years;
  • in the spring and autumn should dig up the ground to kill the larvae;
  • do not leave tops and tots in the area for the winter, as they will help the wireworms and larvae to survive the winter well;
  • should be planted in the garden plants that perfectly repel these beetles. These include marigolds, which emit a hateful smell for wireworms and legumes, in the rhizomes of which there are bacteria, which emit terrible nitrogen for the beetle.
  • You can use the popular method. To do this, 100 g of celandine insist 3 days in 10 liters of water, and then water the bushes.

Wires can also be used to get rid of the wireworm with various kinds of lures :

  • A jar should be dug into 1 m2, on the bottom of which you should put sliced ​​potatoes. Beetles will definitely fall into it. Just do not forget to check the jars and destroy the beetles every 3 days, as well as change the bait.
  • You can also dig a tuber into the ground and set a stick for marking and repeat the above procedure every 3 days.
  • In the spring, on the site, you can pickle cellophane and lubricate it with sugar solution .Beetles will surely flock to the scent and stick to the trap.

Nematode

One of the worst parasites is the nematode. The round worm, 2.5 cm long, can destroy 80% of the crop. Worms dig into the potato root itself and the tubers do not receive nutrients, because they grow small or are not formed at all.

This worm is able to catch up with real horror on gardeners, because it is practically invulnerable:

  • it doesn’t care for either high or low temperatures;
  • he easily tolerates drought and flood .
  • even a lethal dose of radiation for a person is powerless against this worm.

In addition, the parasite can multiply very quickly.

It will take decades to get rid of nematodes, and the population can be reduced after 2 years.

In the fight against the nematode, the following measures are applied:

  • Declare a quarantine, and do not export potatoes outside the region.
  • Do not plant this crop in the same place more than 3 years in a row.
  • After 2 years, it is desirable to change the planting material.
  • The soil is treated with urea .
  • Tubers before planting, pour a solution of potassium permanganate, calculating 0.5 g per 10 liters of water.

Altenarioz

Symptoms are well seen 20 days before flowering, when the leaves cover with brown spots. Spots are also visible on the tubers as a result of the lesion.

Alternaria or brown spot affects both the tubers and the stem of the plant. Infection occurs through wind, insects and raindrops. Hot and rainy weather are just perfect for spreading this disease.

To prevent disease, tubers are treated with such drugs as Integral or Agat-25 .Young shoots moistened with Bravo.

Black leg

Black leg is another disease that has clearly expressed symptoms. With such a lesion:

  • leaves turn yellow, curl and dry;
  • roots and tops first turn black and then rot;
  • they are easy to wrest from the soil.

If the disease progresses rapidly before or during flowering, then tubers will not form .

A favorable condition for the black leg is a rainy summer. The carriers of this disease are the Colorado beetles, aphids and cicadas.

To combat blackleg, the following precautions should be taken:

  • should not be used for planting infected tubers and soil;
  • sick bushes pull out and burn , or bury it for 1 meter, sprinkling bleach.
  • harvesting is carried out in dry weather;
  • before storing the crop in the basement, it is well dried;
  • storage process with 3% lime solution;
  • also perfectly helps the processing of potatoes before planting Maxim or Fitosporin .

Potato Cancer

The disease that causes the fungus, in the place where it penetrates the plant, a growth is formed.

Transmits disease very easy :

  • rainwater;
  • with human shoes;
  • a variety of insects;
  • if the animal eats the affected plant, then it goes along with the manure and continues its livelihoods.

To exterminate the fungi of this species, it is necessary: ​​

  • to constantly change the planting site of the crop;
  • to grow cancers-resistant varieties : Early yellow, Savory, Spark and many others;
  • tubers are treated with 1% suspension of foundationol.

Potato Pests

The most common pests that don't eat potatoes are:

  • of the Colorado potato beetle;
  • potato moth;
  • Medvedka.

Colorado potato beetle

Actively destroys the stem, which is why tubers can not develop normally .It multiplies rapidly, for 1 season born from 2 to 3 generations of Colorado beetles, who rush to fill their belly.

In order to exterminate the Colorado beetles, it is imperative to collect both the insects themselves and tear off the leaves with their clutches and throw them into a container filled with kerosene.
Colorado potato beetle

Potato moth

Cute white butterfly. Over time, it turns into a caterpillar and gnaws almost the entire tuber under the skin itself and leaves its excrement.

She also can settle in the stem of plants .For the emergence of a new generation takes only a month.

To reduce the number of tracks it is necessary: ​​

  • 2 weeks before harvesting, mow the tops;
  • use a tool such as 10% Carboros.90 g of this product are dissolved in 10 l of water.
Potato moth

Medvedka

It is not so easy to find it, because it lives under the ground, but it is also possible to outwit it.

Getting rid of the bear: equip a simple trap by digging a hole half a meter deep and pouring horse manure into it. Medvedka certainly wants to live in it to spend the winter. When the cold comes, it is necessary to scatter the manure, and to find and destroy the insect itself.

It is also possible to water its distribution sites with 10% karbofos, 50 g diluted in 10 liters of water .

Varieties of potato rot

A disease called rot is no less dangerous. There are several types of rot:

  • ring;
  • brown bacterial;
  • mixed internal;
  • wet;
  • dry.

Very often there are cases when ring and brown rot are confused. Although they are caused by different types of bacteria, but still on the leaves appear similar brown-yellow spots. However, if you squeeze the vessels, then a light yellow mass will appear at the ring rot, and at the brown rot the ring turns brown.

Ring

Does not live in the soil, it is transmitted to the next crop through the seeds .Also, if folded tubers are stored next to healthy ones in storage, bacteria will penetrate through scratches or damaged peel.

Ring rot

Brown

Can lurk in the soil and wait in the wings to get into the damaged tubers.

Mixed Internal

Mixed internal potato rot results from mechanical or bacterial damage, as well as from various diseases that the tubers initially damaged. Responsibly refer to the choice of planting material!

In order to avoid the appearance of all the above types of rot, first of all it follows:

  • regularly change the planting material;
  • change the landing site;
  • to harvest the tops after harvest;
  • prevent mechanical damage to potatoes.
Mixed Inner Rot

Wet

Can completely destroy the entire tuber in 15 days .Manifested this disease during storage. Most often, at the site of mechanical damage, the surface becomes soft and begins to rot.

Chemically overcome wet rot is impossible. In order not to expose potatoes to this disease should:

  • drop well-dried tubers into storage;
  • to process a cellar with copper sulphate or lime;
  • to prevent mechanical damage and freezing of tubers.
Wet rot

Dry

Dry rot potatoes can destroy 20% of the crop .It can infect plants at any time, both during storage and in the soil. Its peculiarity is that it is not treated, but can only lie low for a while.

Bushes affected by this disease fade, slow down or disappear altogether.

To avoid its occurrence it is necessary: ​​

  • not to abuse the fertilizer , since they release the favorite nitrogen from this rot;
  • to remove the tops from the garden;
  • change the landing site and planting material.
Dry fomosis rot

Mosaic of potatoes

Mosaic is no less unpleasant disease, which is caused by viruses. There are 2 ways to transmit this disease:

  • a variety of insects;
  • if you treat an infected plant with a tool and then apply it to a healthy one, then infection cannot be definitely avoided.

Special attention should be paid to wrinkled and striped mosaic.

Wrinkled

Has received its name according to the signs of the disease. The leaves begin to frown and curl inward. In addition, diseased cells can not retain moisture, which is why most a small drought leads the plant to the death of .

Wrinkled Mosaic

The banded mosaic virus

is more aggressive and can kill about 90% of the crop. At first stripes appear on the leaves, then the leaves die off, and there are only a few things left on the whole bush. As a result, the tuber generally ceases to grow.

Anti-mosaic also has its own methods:

  • virus of this disease dies at 60 degrees;
  • should not be planted with infected tubers, and their should not be easily considered at ultra-light;
  • should also sprout tubers, as the sprouts from infected tubers will be weak;
  • seeds should be treated with insecticides before planting.
Striped mosaic

Potato diseases: classification

All potato diseases are divided into the following groups:

  1. during storage;
  2. viral;
  3. mushroom;
  4. bacterial;
  5. non-infectious.

Table 1 .Separation of the potato disease by type.

disease type disease

viral

all types of mosaic

folding leaves

corymbose tip

curly dwarfism

stolburnoe wilting

fungal

blight

Fusarium dry rot

black scurf

bacterial

ring rot

blackleg

wet bacterial rot

common scab

mixed internal rot non-infectious

darkening of the pulp

gray spot or melanosis

tuber choke

Heat Damage to Tuber

Tuber Frosting

Glandular Spotting

Tuft and Deformation of Tuber

Red or blue staining of the pulp of the tuber

Reticle of the rind

All these diseases can develop in

net of the peel

All these diseases can develop in the

tuber pulp

All these diseases can develop in

and the peel skin

All these diseases can develop in the

tuber pulp

All these diseases can develop in

netting of the peel

All these diseases can develop in

netting of the peel

All these diseases can develop in

netting of the skin of the peel

Why on potatoes brown spots

Cutting potatoes, you can see brown spots that will never rot. We answer the question why this is happening - this is a gelatinous spot. Such potatoes simply become hard and the starch kernels are destroyed in it.

The causes of these spots are:

  • low humidity;
  • high temperature;
  • phosphorus deficiency.

develops this disease only during the growth period of , and it stops during storage of potatoes.

To prevent this disease from affecting your potatoes, you must apply nitrogen fertilizers, chill, and water the potatoes.

Brown spots in the potato

Insecticides

Today there are many insecticides that will save your potatoes from diseases and all sorts of pests. The most effective of them include the following means:

  • Maxim - protects against many diseases, and especially from all sorts of scab and fitovtoroza.
  • Quadris is a tool that not only protects against many diseases, but also improves the growth of potatoes.
  • Kruiser - excellent protection of tubers from various pests.
  • Celeste Top - protects tops and tubers from pests, as well as fungal diseases.
  • Aktara - will protect potatoes for 60 days.
  • Force - aims to destroy the wireworms.
  • Prestige - protects late varieties from rot, scab and Colorado beetles.

And also it should be noted such drugs as Imidor, Commander and Taboo.

As you can see, whatever disease or pests are trying to destroy your crop, yet they will not succeed if you will competently care for your favorite potatoes. Because the time to fight disease and pests and you will achieve amazing results. Have a good harvest!

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