The potato, although it was originally growing in the warm regions of Latin America, is beautifully cultivated in our cold climate. But what about the landing in the Urals and Siberia, where the duration of the climatic winter reaches 7 months? Consider the basic rules and terms of cultivation.
- Planting potatoes on
- Urals When to plant in the Urals
- How to plant
- varieties for planting on
- Urals early varieties
- How to choose
- seeds How to prepare
- seeds How to plant potatoes in the Urals
- Collectionharvest in the Urals
- Planting potatoes in Siberia
- Planting dates
- Planting methods in Siberia
- Preparation of tubers
- How to plant potatoes in Siberia
- Care ofHarvesting potatoes
Planting potatoes in the Urals
known that the specific timing of planting potatoes on a bed, bedding or no harvest. Everything rests on in the specific environmental conditions in a particular region.
As for the Urals, those are much more severe than in the middle belt or the Black Soil Region. This feature is reflected in the possible methods of landing.
When to plant in the Urals
As a rule, in comparison with more southern regions, the gardeners of the Urals shift the start time of works to a later date. For example, if the soil with black soil, as a rule, is planted already in late April - early May, then Ural soil warms to 8 ° C not earlier than the end of May - early June .
Earlier laying in the ground is fraught with consequences - the germination of crops will occur in 2-2.5 weeks instead of the prescribed 8-10 days.
Rough Ural soil necessarily needs loosening or digging. You can do this twice a season - before planting and after harvest.
How to plant
Four options are most common:
- Under the shovel is the simplest "grandfather" way for potatoes;the location of rows and holes is determined by eye, earthworks are carried out by a shovel;the harvest is not too rich.
- On the ridge - before planting, the soil is formed into ridges up to 15 cm high;tubers are placed in them to a depth of 10 cm, providing them with the best warm-up.
- In trenches - instead of single holes, the planting goes to long holes, previously fertilized with compost, sawdust, and humus.
- On organics in a container - analogue of "smart" beds;give a good warming of the soil, the container better retains nutrients and moisture.
As for the method of planting potatoes for the winter, it is absolutely not recommended to use it in the Urals. The earth freezes for several months, even in spring strong frosts are possible. Such vernalization reduces the viability of tubers.
Varieties for planting in the Urals
Not every popular potato variety can withstand the cold without harming itself.
Early ripe varieties
Early ripening though not so prolific, but they can be dug 60 days after germination:
- Bullfinch - “red” potatoes, resistant to pathogens of the nightshade.
- Spring white - “white” tubers, fruits contain up to 15% of starches, belongs to ultra early varieties.
- Vineta - “yellow” variety, surface of tubers with characteristic net coloring;especially resistant to dry conditions.
In the Urals, especially popular, because the most numerous. From planting to maturation, they need no more than 90 days:
- Aspia - beige tubers, resistant to nematode and other ailments.
- Crown - “yellow” potatoes, easily tolerate drought.
- Bezhitsky - “pink” skin color, starchiness increased - up to 20%.
rarely used, since they require no less than 90, and then all of 120 warm days to mature:
- Spiridon - «red" color, especially large variety with tubers weighingup to 160 g.
- Santa is a “yellow” variety, it ripens in only 80 days in a warm summer, usually for 90 or more.
How to pick up seeds
As for the preparation of seed material, the rules here are exactly the same as in other areas. is sufficient to comply with three simple conditions for :
- The tuber should be clearly visible on the tuber - the future roots of the plant;on each seed - from 3 ovaries.
- Maximum weight - 100 g.
- Minimum weight - not less than 30 g.
How to prepare seeds
In general, there is no need for special preparation of potatoes for planting. It is quite enough to hold basic events that are the same for all varieties:
- Remove the tubers from the cellar a month or two before planting , place in a warm place.
- Regularly moisten the tubers with water, daily splashing moisture on them.
- A week before planting, rub the seed skin with ash.
- An alternative option is - wetting potatoes in potassium permanganate.
vernalization Also for cold regions, it is recommended to dig out the bushes, originally planned for seed, slightly earlier than others. So the vitality of the tubers is preserved, the future harvest increases.
How to plant potatoes in the Urals
The characteristic features of the Ural weather - likelihood of cold periods and lack of heat - must be taken into account. If the first problem is easily solved by keeping the planting dates, then a small amount of heat can be compensated.
For example, the location of the beds in the north-south direction is well reflected in the growth of plants. You also need to refrain from placing landings in the shadow areas.
There are special requirements for the depth of tuber bookmarks. The Urals are characterized by hard soils with moderate fertility. For them to make their way through the germ is a difficult task, because laying seeds to a depth of more than 6-8 cm is unwise.
The soil in the Urals is more often belongs to the podzolic soils, only in the south of the region are more fertile steppe soils.
It is enough to confine the following activities:
- Hilling - only necessary when planting under a shovel or in furrows. It consists in pouring the ground to the base of the stalks, it is carried out up to 3 times per season.
- Cutting flowers during the beginning of the growing season - flower stalks take a significant part of the nutrients from the tubers.
- Pruning tops - carried out when the bushes have already formed, twigs are cut, closer to the base of the stem.
The issues of weeding, feeding and protecting plants from parasites are easy to solve using special chemicals. The list of funds is extremely long.
As a rule, they are used as mixtures, which include herbicides( against weeds), insecticides( against insects), and fertilizers.
Harvesting in the Urals
The time when it comes time to dig potatoes depends on the varieties used and the planting dates. Since the most beloved varieties of local gardeners are middle-ripening with a ripening duration of 90 days, harvesting works begin in September.
Useful advice for gardeners - take up a shovel when more than half of the foliage on the bushes dries. We mean that there are varieties of potatoes that turn green until late autumn. Also, the stems can die in the disease.
Planting potatoes in Siberia
Siberia is very reminiscent of the Urals region with its climate, except that summer is slightly cooler. Therefore, the tips on cultivating potatoes will be similar in many respects.
. Landing dates for
. As is the case with the Urals, in Siberia is necessary to postpone landing until the onset of consistently warm weather. The key factor is soil warming up to 8 ° C or to a depth of 20 cm.
Not be superfluous to get acquainted with the weather forecast for the week ahead.
It is possible to determine the term of planting potatoes in the soil on birch leaves - plant as soon as they reach a size of 2-3 cm.
Landing Methods in Siberia
As for the landing methods, everything is the same as in the Urals - under the shovel or more technological ridge, trench or container accommodation .
Use such options as unfolding tubers under mulch( a mixture of humus, peat, sawdust) or straw should be carefully due to the cold June and possible frosts.
As well as for the Urals, it is advisable to refrain from using late-ripening potato varieties.
- Adretta is an early ripe white variety that is immune to late blight.
- Alena - mid-seasoned “red” potatoes, not afraid of dry days, medium-sized tubers - about 60-80 g.
- Zhukovsky - an early variety cultivated in Siberia;the peel is pink, the size of tubers is below average, but the first crop can be harvested within 60-70 days after planting.
- Prikulsky - the earliest variety;for the speed of maturation is called "forty-day";poorly stored, used for planting part of the site.
Seed preparation begins about a month before the start of work, in the case of Siberia it is the middle - end of April. It consists in the selection of healthy, untouched by rotten material and its exposure to a warm room from the cellar.
If you store the potatoes in bags, then they must make holes for ventilation - protection from rotting.
Since the planting is late, it will not be superfluous for the to additionally prepare for it the tubers. Preparation consists in the following:
- Washing of potatoes in potassium permanganate;procedure with seed roots can be done before the start of winter.
- Sprouting - takes place in a warm room, well, if it has a source of scattered light.
- Treatment of with heteroauxin or gibberellin is done to stimulate root growth.
- Potato Moisturizing - held daily.
For planting, the seeds most suitable for the ovary of future roots are most suitable. The more of them - the better, the presence of three “peepholes” is minimal.
How to plant potatoes in Siberia
The nature of the soil in the vast territory of Siberia is different.
This imposes and specific requirements for the gardener .
- The depth of the holes is no more than 10 cm, optimally 6-8 cm.
- Sow in a sunny area - potatoes are very sensitive to a lack of light.
- Be sure to loosen the soil before placing the seeds - the procedure is not necessary for black soil, but very useful for hard soils.
In addition, as in the Urals, the welcomes the arrangement of the beds in the meridional direction from north to south - the stems receive more light and heat.
Caring for potatoes
In general, the process of caring for plants in Siberia is not much different from that in other places; weeding, cutting and hilling plants. However, there are some peculiarities, they again depend on the climate of the region:
- Cut grass or weeds fit under the base of the stem - additional protection against possible frost.
- Frequent watering of - the summer months in Siberia are more arid than in the European part of the country;in the absence of rain, it is enough to water the beds every week; 3-5 liters of moisture are needed per bush.
Siberian sod-podzolic soils carry few useful elements needed by potatoes.
Over a season, consumes at least 5 kg of nitrogen and 5 kg of potash elements per hectare of land.
It is impossible to name the single harvest period for Siberia. Different time of planting potatoes, its different varieties make the determination of the correct time the task of the gardener himself.
The region is arid, with the onset of autumn the precipitation only decreases, so you can safely postpone cleaning until the end of September.
If you decide not to hurry with the cleaning, it makes sense to cut the tops on the plants, leaving small sprouts up to 12 cm in height, all shoots and leaves are removed from them. This is done to prevent the appearance of fungi, causing tuber rot.
The task before the residents of the eastern regions of the country is not easy. Let them make a good harvest more difficult for them than for the inhabitants of the European part, she can manage the zealous owner.