How to check if the compressor of the refrigerator is working
The compressor is one of the main parts of the refrigerator. If it does not work or does not start, then the refrigerator does not work either. Is it possible to check it yourself if you have any suspicions of a malfunction? It turns out that you can, but this requires some knowledge.
- 1A little about the device of the compressor
- 2Resistance check
- 3Current check
A little about the device of the compressor
Any compressor must be sealed. What we see on the reverse side of the bottom of the refrigerator is a casing that is usually painted black. Inside it in oil in a suspended and specially fixed state is the compressor.
In most household refrigerators, compressors are not fundamentally different. They are a piston electric motor with a starting winding, which operates on alternating current. If you studied well at school or disassembled electrical appliances, then imagine what an electric motor is. There must be a winding in it. It is clear that if the engine does not turn on, then the entire system does not function.
Since the compressor is in the casing, three outlets are made from it. These are three pins that protrude at the bottom, forming a triangle. One conclusion comes from the starting winding, the other from the working winding, and the third is the common conclusion..
The standard compressor has a relay - the device from which the motor is started. The relay is connected to these three contacts and looks like a small box..
There are, however, already more modern models in which the adjustable speed of inclusion. In such a refrigerator, the compressor is connected to a separate box, in which a more complicated electrical circuit is enclosed.
Possible reasons for the fact that the appliance does not turn on:
- the compressor of the refrigerator burned out;
- the starting relay does not work (burned out);
- something happened to the cable through which the device is connected.
As you can see, we must first check the cable, and if it's all right, inspect the compressor of the refrigerator.
It also happens that the appliance turns on, it hums, the light is on, but it does not cool, or it cools very little. In this case, most likely, follows the refrigerant (freon). It will be necessary to call a specialist to pump gas.
When the compressor of the refrigerator appeared before you, and you are going to do something with it, we advise you to check it for breakdown. The fact is that it can strike with an electric current if the internal winding breaks the voltage across the housing. This happens often with old refrigerators. This can be checked by measuring the resistance between each contact and the housing. At the same time, you need to find a place on the case where there is no paint, or scrape off the paint a little.
Resistance should be "infinity that is, no figures should be shown by the multimeter. Otherwise, the motor is faulty, and dealing with it is dangerous. Then proceed as follows:
- Remove the cover of the start relay and disconnect the relay itself.
- Then the multimeter must check the resistance between the contacts. We hope, if you read this topic, then you know how to use an ohmmeter and a multimeter. But, if not, then do not be scared. This can be easily learned by carefully examining the device or asking a more experienced friend.
- First check the resistance between the two lower contacts (for example, it is 30 Ohm), then between the upper and lower left (20 Ohm), and finally between the upper and lower right (15 Ohm).
The resistance value varies depending on the compressor model, so the data shown may differ from what you see. There are special tables, which show what values should be in different models..
We draw attention to the fact that the starting winding has more resistance than the working winding, although some foreign manufacturers do the opposite. Often on the labels they show the schematic arrangement of contacts. The letter S denotes the starting (starting) winding, the letter R or M - working winding, and the letter C - the common output (central).
If the resistance between the two contacts is 0 Ohm, then the compressor of the refrigerator is clearly faulty.
Then, just in case, check the current consumption. To do this, connect the relay and start the engine. It is desirable to use a relay, which is known in advance that it is operational. It is most convenient to use a multimeter with ticks. Clamp the mesh with one mains lead and look at the meter reading. If the power of the motor is 140 W, then the current should be, A. If the power is less, then the current should be less.
So, if the refrigerator fan is working, but the refrigerator does not freeze, then you need to check the motor-compressor. This eliminates one of the causes of the malfunction. Then you can check the relay.
There are times when the relay is malfunctioning, and the compressor must be turned on. In this case, it is started by connecting to the network according to a special scheme. Two wires are connected to the central and working terminal - they will be supplied with voltage. Another third wire is connected to the working terminal. Then the voltage is applied and touching the third wire to the starting winding terminal with one touch. You have to be careful here, because the work is done with high voltage.
Continuing the topic: the power of the refrigerator.