For centuries, the tree of elm has been wrapped in a mysterious halo. In many nations, birch bark branches( many call it so) served as a symbol of valor and loyalty, motherhood and good luck, as well as a sacred attribute of the church. Now it can be found on the territory of modern parks and deciduous forests. Some gardeners have decided to decorate their garden with this exhibit, because its leaves perfectly retain dust. Such a grove will serve as a kind of “human shield” for your own residence. It should be borne in mind that the elm tree of the elm family can adapt to any conditions. Therefore, it is important to know some of the details of planting and caring for him.
The main characteristics of
Thanks to the flexible structure of wood fibers from the bast obtained, in ancient times weaving a lot of household items. These were both exquisite sleighs and housewares. The thinning of the arc and the rim decorated the abode of the inhabitants of ancient Russia. At the same time, branches and leaves are widely used for tanning leather products.
The name of this tree originates from the Celtic language, in which there is such a word as "Elm".The German and Latin name of the plant are also very similar - “Ulmus”.The literal translation of all these words means "bending rod."
Externally, the elm is a mighty tree, the description and photo of which is presented below. The trunk of this representative elm in young age is covered with smooth bark of a light brown color. As the plant grows, it becomes thick, and also rather coarse, and over time begins to peel off with thin plates. The deep cracks on its surface resemble the scars of war wounds. On some branches growths can form and develop.
The powerful birch bark root system runs very deep, so it can calmly reach the groundwater level. Due to this feature of the roots, the elm grows to 25–30 m in height, with a trunk circumference of 1.5 m. However, some varieties do not root deeply, but more into the upper layers of the earth, occupying a huge area. The age of many members of this family can range from 200 to 300 years.
Record holder was able to survive the fire of 1812, which occurred in Moscow. However, the sultry summer of 2010, he still failed to move and completely dried.
First date with elm
Looking at the photo of leaves and seeds of an elm tree, you can notice some unique features of their structure. With this study, the grower will not confuse him with other varieties. These slender giants have:
- Small nondescript violet flowers. Lush inflorescences are decorated with a variety of purple stamens. In combination with the gently green legs, they look special. The flowering period of the plant is 10 days. It will mainly fall in March or April.
- Large leaves. On the stem, they are arranged alternately. The length of each varies from 12 to 15 cm. The tapered conical shape of the leaves is in harmony with the ribbed surface. Pronounced side streaks create a relief texture on a dark green canvas. The upper part of the leaves is smooth, but the lower part is covered with a fluffy layer of villi. It is on them that all the dust accumulates. In the autumn, they acquire an amazing color in yellow-red colors.
- Young spikes. They grow in the lower part of the trunk, forming bulky tubers. Light brown young stalks have a smooth texture.
- Fruits. Each of them resembles a thin plate - a lionfish, - in the center of which is hidden a seed. In the upper part of the wing is a refined recess. They are planted on short cuttings and collected in thick bunches. However, the tree begins to bear fruit from the age of seven or eight. By the end of May or the beginning of June, the seeds are fully ripened.
Elm Smooth - the most popular elm variety. It is found in many city parks. This species tolerates severe winters and maintains temperatures down to –28 ° C.But still the shoots of plants can freeze slightly. Of the 16 popular species, half can be found on the Scandinavian Peninsula, as well as in Europe. If we analyze where the elm tree grows in Russia, we can see that these are mostly humid regions, such as:
- Western Siberia;
- South Ural( Chelyabinsk and Sverdlovsk Region);
Ilm perfectly gets on not only in a humid environment, but also in a dry climate, as it penetrates to underground sources. The banks of rivers and lakes, as well as deciduous forests are their favorite habitats. Yet very compacted and saline soils adversely affect the livelihood of the tree, although the elm and unpretentious to the choice of soil.
Berest grows incredibly fast. The annual growth of both a young sapling and an adult tree is 0.5 meters high and 0.3 m wide.
Features of breeding and care
Many people know about the healing properties of the bark, leaves and fruits of elm, so they want to have this luxury in their garden. Due to the diuretic and astringent action of these natural components, it is used in the treatment of:
- of the gastrointestinal tract;
- skin diseases;
The extract obtained from bark is used as an anti-inflammatory or antibacterial agent. Moreover, these trees create a cozy atmosphere in the garden. They “love” a haircut, so it’s easy to create a hedge.
It is important to adhere to the basic rules of planting elm seeds. As soon as they mature, they should be planted immediately into the ground. The first two weeks are the optimal period for this. If you wait a little, they lose their properties. Although the seeds do not require preliminary preparation, it is necessary to sow them properly. For this you need:
- dig a bed well;
- to make mineral fertilizers;
- make the distance between the rows from one to two meters;
- to sow grains with a step of 30-50 cm;
- fill a small hole with a thin layer of soil;
- plenty of water.
Plant it in the shade. Nevertheless, on a lawn well warmed by the sun, it will grow several times faster. The elm crown expands very quickly, which can negatively affect neighboring light-loving plants. Among other things, since ancient times they have mutual intolerance with grapes.
It is worth noting that June may surprise with its hot weather. Therefore, the planted area must be covered with a film until shoots appear. About a month young sprouts should be watered abundantly.
The Dutch disease is an eternal elm tree problem. If there are many dried / unblown branches on it, the bare bark and at the same time the crown is scanty, it means that the bark is affected by this disease. The main reason for its occurrence is excessively moist soil. He can be ill in this way from several weeks to 5-7 years. Therefore, you need to monitor the level of soil moisture to lush thickets always decorated the garden.