it is not difficult to imagine a forest where the light of the sun barely seeps through the trunks going to heaven. The quiet rustle of the leaves merges with the singing of birds, for which the beech tree has become a cozy home. When autumn falls to the ground, the forest lights up with various bright colors. And in the spring they give freshness and peace.
Many would agree that the forest is the true embodiment of unsurpassed beauty, especially if it has a beech tree. The most ancient specimens of the plant are up to 40 m in height. The diameter of the trunk - about 2 meters. Truly stately giant! In addition, his life expectancy often reaches the mark - 300 years. That would be so much people to live!
It is interesting that beech wood begins to be harvested when it is over 100 years old. The diameter of the trunk can be only half a meter.
Biological characteristics of plants and species
The beech tree is a member of the "Beech" family, which has about 1000 different plant species. It has a slender trunk, columnar in nature, decorated with a spherical crown. On hot summer days, sunlight hardly penetrates through it, so you can hide from the heat in the shade.
On the thin branches of a tree there are jagged, oblong-shaped leaves that resemble an elongated ellipse. In the cold season, they fall. During flowering on the beech tree, the description and photo of which is provided below, cute earrings appear. They are pollinated by strong winds. In dense forests, where there is little light, the moment of appearance of the fruits comes after 60 years.
They are nuts, up to 15 cm in size. People have long considered them edible, so they were taken for food. Beech develops well in shady areas. Prefers loamy soils. Dislikes low temperatures.
The tree miraculously transfers pruning, so it can be used as a hedge in the backyard area.
In the natural environment there are various types of beech trees. Consider the most popular ones.
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The look of this beech tree is distinguished by a dense crown, which is most often round. Large leaves reach a length of 10 cm. Mostly grows on the Japanese islands and is the dominant tree in forest plantations. Beech grows up to 35 m in height.
Beech Large Leaf
Representatives of this species grow up to 25 m. The maximum diameter of the trunk is approximately 100 cm. Ellipsoid leaves have a pointed tip. Specimens of more than 12 cm are found in length. The color of the leaf plate in summer is green with a blue tint. In the autumn it changes, and they acquire a bright crimson color. The homeland of the species is considered the eastern part of North America. In the 18th century, a tree came to Europe as an ornamental plant for urban parks. Often it can be found in the woods near the maple, linden or birch.
So called the most common type of beech trees that are found in Europe. They form forests, are found in parks of the urban zone, grown in botanical gardens. A distinctive feature of the majestic plant - the crown of a cylindrical shape with a round tip. This is achieved thanks to thin branches, densely planted on a thick trunk. The unique properties of beech wood allow you to use its wood for the manufacture of furniture, and the fruits in cooking. The plant looks wonderful at any time of the year:
- in the spring it attracts silk foliage;
- in summer - with a bluish crown;
- when autumn comes, they light up bright burgundy shades;
- in winter - the tree resembles a stately forest guard.
That is why beech is valued by lovers of green space.
This species is widely distributed off the Black Sea coast and on the slopes of the Caucasus Mountains. A suitable area where the beech tree grows in Russia is the Crimean peninsula and its most western part( Kaliningrad region).In these places there is a mild climate, where there is no strong frost.
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There is a view on the Japanese islands and in Korea. It is often called the “Japanese Blue Beech”.It grows to a height of 15 m and can have several trunks. Feature of the form - pubescent leaves, the length of which is 6 cm. In shape, they resemble an ellipse. The tip is pointed. The bottom of the plate is a gray color.
Such beech can grow up to 20 meters in height. It is distinguished by a wide crown of oval character, which is obtained thanks to the many branches. Feature of the form - the elongated shape of the sheet plate. The tree is found mainly in China, and only occasionally in the park zones of European countries.
This type of beech tree has a specific shine of bark. The tree grows to a height of 25 meters. It has a rounded crown of lush branches. Every year, an adult tree bears fruits in the form of small nuts, which birds and small animals love to eat.
Foliage and beech bark contain many useful elements. It is better to dry the medicinal raw material away from direct sunlight. The perfect place is a loft with good ventilation.
Beech and its valuable wood
At all times, people used earthly gifts to build their way of life. Trees have always occupied an important place in this business and beech is no exception. Many useful things were made from it. Among other things, I would like to mention:
- various musical instruments;
- sheet plywood;
- measuring instruments;
As you can see, a tree brings a lot of benefit to a person, because its wood has the following properties:
- moisture resistance;
- increased density;
- propensity to form rounded shapes;
- is easy to polish.
It is known that experienced brewers in England, when brewing their favorite drink of all, add beech chips to it. This gives it an unusual taste and aroma. In addition, they make racks, barrels, garden arbors out of beech wood. And from the cuts you can lay out a path in the rustic garden.
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Beech tree for the benefit of people
If you look closely at a photo of a tree - beech, you can note its external beauty. It fits wonderfully into any country landscape in single or group plantings. Due to the fact that the beech is prone to pruning, various figures are cut out of it. Often, beech plantings are found in sanatoriums, where people undergo a wellness treatment.
Wood is also used in the culinary arts. Vinegar is made from its wood. The fruits are used for various desserts, pies and cakes. In places where many beech trees grow, people have learned to make flour from its fruits. Pancakes, cookies and pancakes are made from it. Moreover, from the nuts get aromatic oil, which is widely used in cosmetology.
To get an excellent face and neck mask, add beech oil to it.
Scientists believe that beech is an important part of the formation of oxygen on earth. His many leaves are assiduously involved in this process. And the unique root system protects the soil from corrosion. Some experts believe that thanks to planting from beech, moisture freely falls deep into the ground. In such an area there is no erosion of soil or stagnant water.
In order to somehow maintain their health, people tried to use plants. Beech is no exception. From its foliage and elements of the bark prepare healing drinks, make baths, compresses and even lotions. Fragrant beech oil is widely used for cosmetic purposes, to preserve the freshness of the skin of the face. In general, the tree is really a valuable gift from nature. So let us take care of these majestic trees.
Beech Forest - Video