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In the old days, people believed that they were out of the bottom of the white gray lines, they would be the same as the numbers and whit they would be the same as they should be used to keep the numbers they would like the numbers and outlet codes and to get the values that's already left to be applied to the distance values of the distance values and the distance values that have to keep the distance values and the distance the distance from the distance values of the distance the distance of distance of distance of distance of price and amount of price and price to the size and distance of distance of distance of distance of 4, price, price, price, price, price and price, price, price, price, price, price, price, price, price, price, price, price for size, the size and the distanceand wealth. It is impossible to verify the veracity of grandmother's legends, but one glance at the warty euonymus is enough to come closer and look at the bushes, unusually bright for the middle strip.
The area where this species of euonymus is ubiquitous is extremely extensive. In Russia, the culture grows in light coniferous and deciduous forests, in oak forests, in clearings and on forest edges that begin to grow. The distribution area extends from Narva to Krasnodar, from Pskov to Perm. In Europe, the warty euonymus, in the photo, can be found from the south of Sweden to the countries of the Balkan Peninsula.
It is not surprising that the plant was noticed by lovers of ornamental crops and in the second half of the 18th century appeared among the plantings in park ensembles of Moscow, St. Petersburg and other regions of the country.
Today, deciduous shrub, showing an enviable frost resistance and unpretentiousness, has become commonplace outside its natural range, for example, in the Altai and the Urals, in Primorye and the states of Central Asia.
Description of warty euonymus
Compared with Asian relatives, warty euonymus is not distinguished by growth. Most often, the limiting height of a shrub or small tree does not exceed two meters, even for a very mature specimen.
ESCLs are slow growing plants. Warty variety is no exception.
The most intensive growth occurs in the first 15 years since the germination of the seed. Over the years, the shrub reaches a height of one and a half meters. In subsequent years, the growth is extremely small, and after 30 years of age, all efforts of the euonymus are aimed at replacing old shoots and maintaining the crown. As a rule, the maximum age of this culture is 50 years.
Young shoots stand out with a greenish-brown tinge, but over time the bark darkens, becoming almost black, cracks and takes on some unreal appearance.
Euonymus verrucosus - this species name of warty euonymus fully reflects the plant's belonging to the extensive family of euonymus, and its external feature, which makes it easy to recognize the Russian forest and forest-steppe zones, as well as other regions of Eurasia. Large and small shoots of the plant are covered with a kind of cork growths, like warts or, as the word sounds in Latin, verruca. It is they who provide recognition, as shown in the photo, warty euonymus.
From mid-May to June, the branches of the shrub are covered with numerous flowers. True, unlike other ornamental plants, they are completely unattractive for the euonymus. The corollas of a brownish tint in diameter do not exceed a centimeter, consist of:
- of four rounded petals;
- from the cup connecting the flower with the peduncle;
- of pistil and four tiny stamens.
Individual flowers are combined into small loose inflorescences of 4–9 pieces each. Flowering is accompanied by an unpleasant smell, which is sometimes called "mouse".This interesting feature of the warty euonymus is due to the fact that the plant pollinators are some species of flies. Insects are attracted by the specific aroma and mucus produced by flowers and becoming a delicacy for forest dwellers.
Euonymus shoots are covered with oblong-ovate, serrate leaves opposite each other. Sheet length can vary from one and a half to six centimeters. In summer, the coloring of the foliage pointed at the end from the outside is dark green and flat. The back of the sheet plate is lighter than the top, while it is sometimes covered with a barely noticeable pile. With the onset of autumn, the colors of the crown change drastically. As in the photo, the leaves of the warty euonymus become pink, purple or maroon-red.
Ripe fruit complements the amazing picture created by the euonymus. Starting from August, 4-nested boxes acquire a bright pink or reddish-carmine color. Then they open up and brilliant black seeds appear, covered with a dense orange prisemenik.
The fruits are small, their diameter reaches 8–12 mm, the seeds are even smaller and do not exceed 6–7 mm. The boxes hanging on thin petioles were presented to a warty euonymus, in the photo, several more names, among which are “wolf earrings”.
Since the flowering of the crop lasts about three weeks, seed ripening is uneven. The appearance of bright fruit trees attracts many birds willingly pecking them together with a juicy prisemennik and carrying seeds for many kilometers. And the remaining seeds on the shrub fall as early as 7-10 days after opening the boxes.
Interestingly, the passage through the digestive tract increases the germination of seeds, but still in nature, this culture is more often propagated vegetatively with the help of root or stem cuttings.
Application of warty euonymus in landscape design: photos and tips
The root system of warty euonymus has a superficial arrangement, and the depth of the roots depends largely on the soil, climatic and landscape conditions in which the plant is located. To ensure a reliable attachment to the ground, the euonymus acquires an extensive system of large and small rhizomes, at the same time strengthening the soil layer at the place of growth of the culture. This feature of euonymus in landscape design, as in the photo, is actively used when gardening and strengthening is necessary;
- steep man-made slopes;
- ravines where there is a risk of wind erosion;
- steep banks of artificial and natural reservoirs.
Plants, accustomed to be under the forest canopy, easily tolerate a lack of light, are not afraid of hot days when the air with evaporation loses moisture residues. But for the warty spruce grown on the site, it is important to ensure the availability of nutrient, well-drained soil and regular watering.
When using euonymus in landscape design, as in the photo, you need to take into account another feature of the culture. The density of the crown, its compactness and the amount of foliage on the shoots are directly proportional to the lighting. Copies grown in open spaces are more decorative and vibrant than those that have been hidden under the crowns of broad-leaved trees for many years.
In the first case, the euonymus is easier to form, the shoots thicken, the internodes shorten, the number of side shoots, flowers and ovaries increases.
In shoots grown in the shade of plants, shoots for a long time do not form a solid bark, remaining thin and greenish. The branches are elongated, the leaves on eosklet, as in the photo, are few. The crown is sparse and unattractive.
Correct the situation with the help of pruning will not work because of the very slow growth of the plant.
It is more correct to plant an euonymus from the outset where the culture will stay in the sun for at least half a day. This rule is also taken into account in the case of using warty euonymus in group plantings with larger plants.
The use of warty euonymus: the benefits and dangers of the plant
The euonymus has long attracted the attention of man not only by the beauty of leaves and fruits, but also by its beneficial qualities. In the West, this deciduous shrub is called "spindle".The cause of this nickname is quite prosaic. From the Middle Ages, peasants turned out spindles for spinning wool from lightweight solid wood of Euonymus.
And already at the beginning of the last century, gutta was found in the thickness of the euonymus bark - a rubber-like substance, from which, before the discovery of synthetic plastics, insulating materials, parts of instruments for the chemical industry, expendables for the shoe industry and medicine were made. Today, the need for this substance has disappeared, but scientists have decided to carefully consider the chemical composition of not only the bark, but also other parts of the plant.
As a result, the euonymus has found application in homeopathy and in official medicine as a cardiac, laxative and emetic. But it is worth remembering that decorating the garden, this culture can be potentially dangerous to people and pets.
In the bright fruits, roots, branches, and leaves of the sprigs in the photo, glycosides have a healing effect only in extremely small doses and only as part of medical preparations.
Eaten bright fruits and other parts of the plant lead to poisoning, accompanied by dizziness, weakness, diarrhea and gagging, and in severe cases - chills, cramps, and impaired heart function. At the slightest suspicion of ingestion of the fruit or greenery of the euonymus, it is important to seek qualified medical assistance as quickly as possible.