For owners of suburban real estate, the organization of an autonomous water heating system is practically a necessity. You must agree, what kind of comfort can we talk about if there is no hot water in the house? Electric devices for water heating are extremely popular in organizing the autonomous water supply of a private house.
Such devices can also be used in apartments, so that there are no problems with hot water. They cost a lot, so installing an accumulative water heater with your own hands will significantly reduce costs.
This material will discuss the installation of these devices. We will tell how they work and what you need to know before installation. Also in the article you will find schemes that allow you to correctly install the storage water heater. For clarity, the article contains videos with tips on installing heaters.
The content of the article:
- How it works?
- The order of installation of such heaters
- Connection to the plumbing system
- Water heater and autonomous water supply
- Electrical installation
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How it works?
Electric water heaters of accumulative type are arranged quite simply. Typically, such a device is a container within which a heating element is installed - a powerful heating element. Since the device is designed to store hot water, it is warmed without fail.
Two pipes are built inside: one of them is used to take cold water from the plumbing system, the other is supplied to the DHW circuit with a flow heated to a certain temperature. To regulate the operation of the device using the automatic control unit.
A photo of
The main feature of the storage water heater is that it prepares for use and contains a supply of hot water
Water heaters of accumulative variety process the volume of water specified by the volume of the tank and maintain its temperature
The storage water heaters that feed from the electrical network heat the water up to 55 - 85 ° and keep the heating at the reached level. These actions need a small amount of electricity.
The electric boiler even with a capacity of 150 liters consumes no more than 1.5 kW of electricity
Water heaters of the accumulative principle of action let out in vertical, horizontal, floor and wall execution
In addition to electric models, boilers are produced that are connected to gas, solid fuel and liquid fuel boilers.
Both varieties are two friend tanks. Insulation is laid in the electric units between the tanks, in the boilers connected to the boilers the heat carrier heated by the boiler passes through this space
As water flows from the internal tank of the system, it is replenished from the cold water supply network and gradually heated to the set temperature parameters.
Characteristic differences accumulation equipment
The specifics of the storage heaters
Power consumption of electric heating models
Average needs of an electric boiler
Versions of cumulative aggregates
Connecting the water heater to the boiler
The principle of conservation of heat obtained by heating
The scheme of accumulative units
This complex of devices controls the intake of water, the temperature of its heating water, turns the heating element on and off as needed. Also, the control unit is equipped with an automatic power off module in case there is no water inside the tank.
It is unacceptable to turn on the heater, if the heating element is not covered with water, this situation will lead to an immediate breakdown of the device.
And how to choose a cumulative water heater and do not miscalculate with a choice, you can read in this article.
This scheme clearly demonstrates the principle of operation of the storage water heater, as well as the general procedure for connecting it to the water supply system in the apartment.
The order of installation of such heaters
The simple design provides exceptional reliability of storage water heaters. To install such a device is not too difficult, but it is necessary to take into account a number of important nuances.
First you need to choose a place where the heater will be installed. After that, it is installed and connected to the water supply system and to the power supply.
For domestic needs often use relatively small wall models. They are hung on special brackets. For a model of the vertical type, two brackets are used, and for a horizontal device four such elements will be needed.
The procedure for fixing the brackets on the wall is simple, for this usually use suitable screws and a screwdriver.
This diagram clearly reflects the recommendations and standards for hanging the storage water heater on the wall. Unreliable or incorrect fasteners can cause the device to collapse.
There should be a distance of 180 mm between the brackets on which the vertical models of water heaters are installed. For mounting horizontal models use brackets with hinges.
It is necessary to maintain the distance between the protective cover and the surfaces of other objects not less than 300 mm for devices up to 80 liters, and not less than 500 mm - for heaters with a capacity of 100-200 l
Do not install the vertical model in a horizontal position or vice versa, lay the vertical heater on its side. This is a gross violation of the operating conditions and safety of the device, which can lead not only to equipment damage, but also to a dangerous accident.
Using a level, you should check the correct position of the individual brackets relative to each other. As for the location of the water heater, it is recommended to choose it as close as possible to the hot water collection points.
This will allow faster delivery of hot water to the consumer, i.e. reduce heat loss during transportation.
For domestic needs most often used wall models of storage water heaters. All models of such devices have a concise and attractive design.
Inexperienced craftsmen sometimes make a mistake - attach brackets to plasterboard partitions. The carrying capacity of such structures is too small to bear the weight of the device.
Even if a water heater installed in this way does not collapse immediately, this can happen after it has been filled with water.
A separate case is the installation of a storage water heater on a plaster wall, behind which there is a load-bearing wall. In this case, special fasteners of sufficient length should be used so that they pass through the false-wall and plunged into the thickness of the supporting structure, which will take over the main load.
Of course, the place in which the storage heater is installed must be accessible for maintenance, adjustments, repairs and etc. The design of such devices is usually quite attractive, therefore, in the area of combining with other interior items, there are no problems must.
Of course, before starting installation work, the manufacturer’s instructions should be reviewed to take into account the recommendations in this document.
If the storage water heater is installed in the apartment of a multi-storey building, if it breaks down, there is a danger of flooding of the rooms that are located on the floor below. Therefore, it is recommended that before installing the device, take care of waterproofing the space intended for it.
A photo of
Electric storage water heaters are not limited in scope. They are installed in high-rise apartments and in private homes
Production of the accumulative equipment is made taking into account the forthcoming operational conditions. The electric component of all models is protected from moisture
The efficiency of the electric drive directly depends on the power of the heating element. Even a small device with a useful capacity with a powerful heater is able to quickly process water and supply a large volume of water.
Water heaters of accumulative type with a small tank in high-rise buildings are used mainly as additional equipment during the period of seasonal disconnection of DHW
Scope of storage water heaters
Protecting equipment from water ingress
Guidelines for choosing an electric drive
Use of compact drives
An alternative option to protect against such troubles can be a special tray, equipped with a drain hole and connected to the sewer system.
If the house has an automated leak protection system, it makes sense to install one of the sensors directly under the water heater. Completely from flooding, this measure will not save, but will help minimize damage.
Since it is recommended to put the storage water heater as close as possible to the hot water intake points, you should make sure that the device is sufficiently protected from moisture.
If the heater is located next to a sink, sink or bathtub, splashing on the surface of the case is almost inevitable. More serious contact with water is also possible, which is dangerous for any appliance.
Before you install in the apartment storage water heater, you should pay attention to the labeling device. The ability of the device to transfer external influence is reflected by a special index IPXX, where XX is a digit.
The values of the first indicator of the IP protection index:
- 0 - no protection;
- 1 - protection against the ingress of large objects (dimensions more than 50 mm);
- 2 - protection against medium-sized items (dimensions greater than 12.5 mm);
- 3 - protection against small objects (dimensions greater than 2.5 mm);
- 4 - protection against small objects (dimensions greater than 1 mm);
- 5 - dust protection;
- 6 - absolute tightness.
The first digit of the index reflects the resistance of the appliance to contact with foreign objects. The second of them indicates the degree of protection of the device from moisture.
The values of the first indicator of the IP protection index:
- 0 - no protection;
- 1 - there is protection from vertically directed drops;
- 2 - protection from drops falling at an angle of not more than 15 degrees from the vertical;
- 3 - protection against raindrops and splashes at an angle of no more than 60 degrees from the vertical;
- 4 - protection against splashes in any direction;
- 5 - protection against water jets;
- 6 - protection from strong jets and sea waves;
- 7 - short-term immersion of the device to a depth of no more than one meter is allowed;
- 8 - the device can be immersed to a meter depth for up to half an hour.
This information will allow you to evaluate the conditions of operation of the heater in terms of safety. This information will be useful for the installation of other electrical appliances.
Most storage water heaters do not need an excessively high degree of protection, for example, for work under water. Most often, such devices are labeled as IP25. This level can be provided at home.
Connection to the plumbing system
The drain hole of heaters of this type, regardless of the model, is usually at the bottom. First you must assemble and install the so-called security group. This is a set of valves and fittings designed to prevent various emergencies that may arise during operation of the device.
At the top of the set adapter, which is often called "American." Next, screw the bronze tee. A non-return valve is attached to its lower part, which prevents water from flowing back into the plumbing system. To the side branch of the tee attach another tee.
The diagram shows in detail the connection of the storage water heater: hot and cold water risers, water taps (1 and 2); shut-off valves (3 and 4); check valve (5); drain valve (6)
A safety valve is attached to it at 6 bar to ensure the possibility of automatically reducing the pressure inside the tank if it has reached a critical level.
A special compression fitting for a water pipe is attached to the same tee. According to it, at an overpressure, part of the water will be drained from the reservoir to the sewer.
Safety group diagram of storage water heater. This complex of devices prevents dangerous emptying of the device’s capacity and removes excess water if the pressure inside exceeds the norm.
After installing the instrument, it is imperative to ensure that the opening of the pressure valve remains open, otherwise the device simply will not work.
All threaded connections should be sealed and sealed. Experts recommend to take the sealant to dry for at least four hours.
The photo clearly shows and signs the safety group elements of the storage water heater. When installing the device it is important to accurately follow the sequence of their connections.
Steel, copper, plastic or metal-plastic pipes can be used to connect the device with a cold water riser. When self-assembly is most often used plastic pipes, since soldering them is relatively easy.
Some use flexible hoses for this purpose, but this decision does not justify itself. As practice has shown, such elements wear out quickly.
Separate elements of the safety water heater group are connected by a thread. In accordance with the regulations, these places should be sealed and sealed with a sealant.
It is clear that before inserting pipes, hot and cold water entering the apartment should be blocked. A shut-off valve should be installed between the cold water riser and the heater so that, if necessary, it is possible to turn off the water entering the device. All connections are sealed carefully.
Now you need to bring another pipe that connects the heater with a hot water system in the apartment. At this site, you will need another stopcock: between the hot water riser and the heater.
This tap should always be closed so that the heated water from the boiler does not get into the general hot stand of the house. Again, you need to follow the compaction and sealing of all connections.
A cold water stopcock between the heater and the risers must be installed in this way. in a closed manner, so that it does not impede the flow of water to other consumers, cutting off only heater.
A connection to the hot water system needs to be done so that, if necessary, you can restore the flow of hot water from the common riser to the system in the apartment.
This connection to the plumbing system can be considered complete. Some specialists at this stage recommend performing a preliminary check: fill the container with water, and then drain it and see if there is a leak. Such a check can only be done after the sealant has completely dried on all joints.
Water heater and autonomous water supply
In private households are usually used not centralized, but autonomous water supply. In such a situation, the use of a storage water heater is fully justified and possible. But the connection scheme should be slightly modified. The source of water in this case is usually a tank installed in the attic or the upper floor.
This diagram reflects the features of connecting to the autonomous water supply system of the accumulative water heater, if the vertical distance between the heater and the water tank is less than two meters
It is necessary to measure the vertical distance between this tank and the water heater. If it is less than two meters, then a tee is installed at the outlet of the tank in order to divert part of the cold water to heating device so that the pipe is above the level at which it is installed heater. A tee with a check valve and a drain outlet is installed at the inlet of the cold water pipeline to the device.
If the distance from the water tank to the heater vertically exceeds two meters, then the discharge is performed lower than the heater installation level. At the same time, at the cold water inlet into the device, a tee is installed with the removal of excess water into the sewer system, and a check valve is attached just below.
This diagram demonstrates the option of connecting the storage water heater in a house with an autonomous water supply system, if the vertical distance between the tank and the heater is more than two meters.
Measure before installing the water heater water pressure in the autonomous system at home. If it exceeds the level of six bar, it is necessary to supplement the installation scheme with a special reduction gear. Excessive pressure from the water entering the heater may cause damage to the equipment.
Connecting the storage water heater to the power supply seems to be a very simple task, since to do this you just need to plug the appliance into a power outlet. Household heaters are usually rated for a standard voltage of 220 V.
But anyone who is at least a little familiar with the operation of electrical networks, understands that for such powerful devices an ordinary outlet may be completely unsuitable.
First, you should assess the condition of the electrical wiring in the apartment or house and find out what maximum load it is designed for. Connecting multiple high-power devices to the same line can be fatal to the system.
For example, if you turn on the heater and the household electric cooker / automatic washing machine at the same time, the wiring may burn out, cause a fire, etc.
It is safer and more reliable to connect a separate cable for the water heater from the electrical panel. The most important indicator in this situation is the cross section of the electric cable. The minimum cable cross-section can be calculated using special tables.
This should take into account the operating voltage, phase, the material of the cable, whether the wiring hidden, etc. For water heaters usually use a strong copper or aluminum cable, voltage 220 V, one phase.
This table will help you choose a cable of suitable cross-section for connecting the storage water heater to the power supply. Using poor quality cable can cause a dangerous accident.
If the heater is installed in a room with high humidity (bathroom, kitchen, etc.), you should use special waterproof sockets.
In addition, for two-phase boilers it is almost always necessary to install UZO - device of protective shutdown. The cable must also be protected from moisture, as well as durable and sufficiently elastic.
Most often storage water heaters are installed in places with high humidity, for example, in the bathroom. Here it is necessary to use special waterproof plugs.
You should not save on the cable, buying products of dubious quality. In addition, to take the electrical cable to connect the storage heater you need with an adequate margin. The wire must not be tensioned.
Before connecting, carefully examine the labeling of the cable. Inexperienced beginners are sometimes confused and connect the phase to the ground loop.
If there is no experience in performing electrical work, it makes sense to seek advice from an experienced electrician or instruct him to perform this stage of installation of the water heater.
It is imperative to take care of grounding the heater. To do this, you can use a piece of metal wire, one end of which is fixed to the body of the heater, and the other is attached to the ground loop.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Description of the installation of the storage water heater is given here:
This video contains a number of useful tips for installing hot-water heaters:
Accumulative water heaters are popular and reliable, they provide the house with hot water in the required quantity. Their installation is not so difficult, but you need to strictly follow the manufacturer's recommendations and safety precautions.
If you have the necessary experience or knowledge of installing storage water heaters, please share it with our readers. Leave your comments at the bottom of the article. You can also ask questions about the topic of the article.