# Stucco walls by own hands

#### Content

1. Evaluation and planning of plastering works
• Calculation of the amount of plaster required for wall finishing
• The factors that affect the consumption of plaster
• Method of calculation
• Materials
• Plaster
• Types of plaster for the purpose
• Self-preparation of plaster mortar
• Primer
• Tools necessary for plastering walls by hand
• Tools needed for solution preparation
• Carrying out of works on plaster application
• Basic rules for plastering
• Preparation of the substrate: apply a primer
• Lighting
• Preparation of materials and preparation of a plaster mix
• Plastering technique
• Spray
• Priming
• Beacon Deletion
• Cover
• Grout
• Smoothing

## Evaluation and planning of plastering works

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Why do I need plaster? Naturally, to level the surface of the walls and make them suitable for any subsequent finish. But the situation is different and before carrying out the work you need to clearly visualize the final result. Therefore, it is necessary to clearly define in advance how much the walls should be aligned, what finish coat will be used, clearly imagine the features of the material, from which made the wall, etc. It is from the totality of these parameters that the scale and cost of the work will depend, as well as the material that will be used, and its quantity. Therefore, a thorough evaluation of future work must be carried out before you go shopping.

### Calculation of the amount of plaster required for wall finishing

#### The factors that affect the consumption of plaster

On how much plastering is needed, twomain factors:

• curvature of walls- how much the vertical plane is deviated from the ideal plane. If in new buildings this deviation is about 1-3 mm for each meter, then in older buildings the deviation can be much more significant and even catch the eye;
• type of plaster: naturally, the consumption of different mixtures is slightly different, so there is no single digit of consumption for a certain area.

It is on these basic parameters that the method for calculating the required amount of a mixture is based. A clear example is given below, you just need to substitute your own values.

#### Method of calculation

The calculation consists of two main stages:

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1. Determination of the thickness of the required layer.To begin with, it is necessary to clean the necessary surface well and put beacons: the more, the better. In several places, we highlight the key points where the required measurements will be carried out. So, it is necessary to measure how much the surface deviates from the planned points at key points, then the resulting values ​​are summed up and divided by the number of points. Let's say you have a wall evenly littered 5 cm, you made three control points and determined that the deviations are 1, 3 and 5 cm, which in total gives 9 cm. If 9 cm divided by 3 control points, we get an average thickness of the plaster layer of 3 cm, and this is the figure we will need for subsequent calculations. Immediately take into account that if you use beacons, whatever results are obtained, still the minimum layer of plaster will be 6 mm to hide the beacons themselves.
2. Now using the data on the area of ​​the wall to be plastered and the consumption of the mixture that indicates the package, it is easy to calculate,how many packages will we need. So, for example, take a mixture of Knauf Rotband, which is packed in bags of 30 kg. The manufacturer states that the consumption per 1 m² is, kg (layer thickness is 10 mm). If the area of ​​the wall is 10 m², and the required middle layer is 30 mm, the calculation is simple kg * 3 * 10m² = 255 kg, which means that you need to purchase 9 packets with a dry mixture. Now substitute your data and parameters of using plaster, and get the result to in the end, do not buy excess, or then do not run around rashly in search of material, if it is not enough.
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## Materials

### Plaster

#### Types of plaster for the purpose

The composition of the mixture for plastering can vary considerably. Thus, the main types are:

1. cement:it, though slowly gaining strength, but in the end gives the highest rates for durability, reliability and strength;
2. clay- most suitable for wooden surfaces;
3. calcareous plastermore universal, but it is sometimes injected with gypsum to accelerate solidification;
4. gypsumuse it by itself, but here you need to have great professionalism in time to apply a layer, because it begins to harden after 30 minutes after cooking;
5. combined plasterscan combine several astringent components in their composition, for example, lime and cement;
6. special plasterdiffers by the presence in the composition of some additive, which is necessary to give the material specific properties.

In order to prepare a mortar for plaster, you can mix all the components on your own, or you can purchase a ready mix. The latter option is now becoming more popular, and in shops you can find such mixtures:

• cement-limeconsist of sand, cement, lime and various additives, which give the material stability to various types of harmful effects. Such mixtures are ideal for plastering brick, concrete, aerated concrete, etc. in rooms with a normal microclimate;
• cement-sandyMixtures are more versatile, as they are suitable for work in any conditions. In them, besides, there can be various additives that give frost, plasticity or other properties;
• gypsum plastersuse when it is necessary to make the surface ideal, and the room should have a normal level of humidity and there is no contact with the cement;

But we do not include the decorative plaster known to many in our list, as it is already used for finishing, but for leveling and wall correction it does not fit at all.

#### Self-preparation of plaster mortar

In order to start preparing the plaster solution, it is necessary to take care of the presence of three components: water, astringent and filler. If necessary, use special additives, for example, potassium nitrate will make the surface waterproof.

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Since usually plastering is carried out in three layers, the composition of the solution for each layer may differ slightly. So, for the first layer, less binding agent can be used, in the second primer layer a little more, and in the final final binding component must be at the maximum to ensure a proper aesthetic appearance and durability. If plastering is carried out in one layer, then the amount of binder and aggregate is chosen as the average.

Depending on which mix and which components are used,their ratio in solution will be different. Here are some examples for the most common formulations.

1. If you usecement plasterin three layers, then for
the first ratio of binder and filler - from 5 to
for primer coat - from: to
for the final 5 or
2. Forlime mortarthe ratios are similar to those of cement:
for nabryzg binder and aggregate is mixed in the ratio 5
for primer coat - from: to
for finishing or
3. Forcement-lime mixtureyou must follow the following rules. The unit volume of cement used
, lime parts and 3-5 aggregates for the first layer,
, -1 lime and, -4 filler - for the second,
1 lime and, -4 sand - for the finish.
4. Forclay plasteris still simpler, since all the layers are the same in composition: one part of the clay uses 3-5 parts of aggregate;
5. Lime-clay mixturewill also bring less problems, since there is used the same solution: to 1 part of clay and, it is necessary to add 3-5 parts of sand to lime.
6. Cement-clay mixturealso universal for all layers: on 1 part of cement there are 4 parts of clay and 6-12 parts of sand.
7. And, finally, the last solution -calc-gypsum. To prepare the solution
for the first layer, it is necessary to mix 1 part of lime, 2-3 parts of sand and, 3-1 part of clay,
ratio of lime, gypsum and sand for the second layer 5 -2,
and for the finish layer 1 part of the lime is added with 1 parts of gypsum without sand.

### Primer

From what surface will be plastered and what binder is used in the plaster solution, the type of primer depends:

• acrylic- one of the most versatile, because it is suitable for almost all surfaces except for metal, has no smell, dries quickly;
• alkydSuitable for wooden surfaces, incl. DSP boards and fiberboard. It dries a little longer - about 10-15 hours;
• phenolicis made on the basis of varnish with different fillers, solvents and anticorrosive pigments. It is great for metal as well as wooden surfaces;
• perchlorovinylcharacterized by good performance properties, but it smells strong and when inhaled permanently it is toxic, Therefore, it is used outside the living space for the processing of wood, concrete and metal surfaces.

## Tools necessary for plastering walls by hand

When you already have all the materials, you need to take care of all the necessary tools before the plastering process:

• trowel for applying the mixture;
• falcon for simple plastering and holding a canopy of a portion of the solution;
• scraper;
• Cutting - a small triangular blade, serves to seal small cracks in the plaster;
• semitrans - board with a handle for applying and leveling the plaster layer, as well as for more thorough plastering of corners;
• rule h-shaped to equalize the solution and control the uniformity of its application;
• A grater for grouting already applied plaster layer;
• paint roller.

### Tools needed for solution preparation

So, with what and in what proportion is necessary for the preparation of the solution, we sorted it out. Now we need to know what materials will be needed in order to properly and accurately carry out the entire process:

• a container for mixing all components;
• dispenser in order to measure the volumes of all components;
• a construction mixer, a special drill bit, a trowel or any other tool to mix the resulting solution.

## Carrying out of works on plaster application

### Basic rules for plastering

If you want the plastering process to pass quickly and without problems, and in order to get a high-quality surface, you need to know and carry outa few simple rules.

1. The ideal environmental parameters for work are: temperature + 5... + 30 ° С, humidity - no more than 60%. It is desirable that within 3 days after the completion of work in the room there are approximately the same conditions.
2. On the package to the purchased mixtures should be instructions for cooking: they must be carefully observed.
3. It is very important to thoroughly clean and clean all tools after each new stage of work.
4. If the plaster is applied in several layers, it is necessary to wait for the previous layer to dry before applying subsequent ones. Checking the degree of readiness is easy: press lightly with your finger, and if the surface does not crumble and does not crumple, you can safely apply the next layer.
5. If you need to plaster the walls in the room, it is better to start from the ceiling, and only then go to the walls themselves.

### Preparation of the substrate: apply a primer

Before applying the first layer of plaster, it is necessary to primer the surface. This stage is necessary to strengthen the foundation, make it more resistant to the appearance of fungus, mold, and also that the plaster solution itself is applied more evenly.

Primer is appliedin one or two layers,if the substrate is not loose and does not absorb moisture very much. Otherwise, more layers may be needed, and for walls with large differences or too smooth surfaces, it is better to attach morestucco. But this is not an obligatory stage, as, for example, a brick wall is perfectly manageable and without additional adaptations.

The primer is usually applied with a roller or brush, the process itself is not long and simple, but its ignoring can ruin the whole appearance of the finish. So, on the plaster, laid on top of the untreated surface, spots, cracks and other defects can appear.

### Lighting

In order for the layer of plaster to lie evenly, and the resulting surface was ideal, it is impossible to do without installing beacons, but it is necessary to organize this work correctly.

Now there are several ways to install lighthouses, but some of them require some skill and experience, so we will focus on the simplest, but quite effective, method based on the use of a beacon profile.

So, it all starts with the fact that you need to check the verticality of the wall with a level or plumb. Then we begin to create a basis for smooth application of plaster: in the lower and upper corners of the wall we fix the dowels (for gypsum cardboard walls it is better to use self-tapping screws), and on them we fasten the line, which must be stretched strictly vertically.

Using as a reference level two vertical lines, stretched along the level, we begin the same way with the help of dowels and a level to stretch the horizontal lines. For standard walls (-3 m in height) there will be enough and four outstretched horizontal landmarks.

Now we are armed with a beacon profile and a plaster solution or putty. Under the line, you need to form a whole row of slides from the resulting solution and press the profile into them so that it touches the line, but does not lift it. First we put vertical beacons, then horizontal beacons, and at the end of the works all of them need to be checked once again with the help of a level.

After all this, you can already go to the preparation of the solution and to its application.

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### Preparation of materials and preparation of a plaster mix

You have already chosen the composition of the mixture that suits you best. Now the main thing is to properly prepare all the components and mix them. It would seem that it can be complicated in mixing, but you need to load all the components in a certain order, andfor each type of solution there are certain nuances, which will provide the best result.

1. Cement mixtureit is better to mix before adding water. It is better if the sand and cement are layered and thoroughly mixed. Only after this, water can be added until a uniform consistency is obtained.
2. Cement-lime mortarAlso prepared by mixing sand and cement, to which already then lime milk is added.
3. For the lime mortaruse only slaked lime, and the filler with water is introduced gradually - this will ensure the absence of lumps.
4. If in the lime mortarneed to add gypsum, then try to be quick and do everything in no more than 5 minutes. First, it is better to prepare the gypsum solution (by adding water to the gypsum in the appropriate ratio), and already add lime in it.
5. Toto make a clay mixture, it is better to pre-soak it in water and stretch it, getting rid of the lumps.
6. Ready-made shop mixesjust fill with the necessary amount of water and mix to achieve the desired consistency.

Given all these rules, you can achieve an ideal layer of plaster, which is not only durable and without cracks, but also boasts an excellent aesthetic appearance.

### Plastering technique

The entire process of applying the plaster can be divided into several stages, between which stand the necessary pauses. Normally, three plaster layers are applied, and then rubbed - in this case the effect will be the most successful and durable.

#### Spray

First of all, a plaster solution is applied to the prepared wall with a more liquid, almost sour, consistency called "spray". It includes all the same components as in the subsequent layers, only they are more diluted.

The thickness of such a first layer can vary depending on the surface of the substrate. For wooden walls, it is better to apply a spray of 10 mm thickness, and for concrete, brick and all others, a layer of 4-5 mm can be dispensed with.

The whole process is simple:

1. First the prepared solution is piled on the falcon center with the help of a trowel, the surplus is removed in order to save material.
2. Then you need to bring the falcon to the wall and start to easily throw the composition on the walls, while you can use the trowel to make it more convenient. Gradually the entire surface of the wall should be under such a solution.

Note that it should be applied from approximately the same distance, then it will be the most uniform. When the entire wall is covered with the necessary layer, remove only the most protruding parts of the plaster, leveling the entire surface as long as there is no need.

#### Priming

After the first layer has completely solidified, you can proceed to apply the second - the soil. To be sure that the previous layer is ready for future work, you can slightly press with his finger: the absence of dents and crumbs indicate that you can start applying the second layer.

A mortar for the soil is placed on the area formed between the four lighthouses. Then a zigzag-like jerky motion is made by the metal rule in order to smooth the surface. The direction of movement is from the top down. We repeat this procedure until the surface is well smoothed and devoid of all pits and flaws. In the end, you should get a layer that is a bit rough to the touch, but even, completely closing the beacons, which is at the same level with them.

#### Beacon Deletion

Before applying the last plaster layer - covering, it is necessary to remove plaster beacons from the walland leave the remaining grooves with plaster mortar and level.

There is an opinion that beacons can not be removed, it is only true of the part. The main problem created by the left lighthouses in the plaster layer is their corrosion and subsequently the rust spots appearing on the finish coat. Supporters of leaving beacons in the layer of plaster as one of the arguments lead that the use of quality galvanized lighthouses reduces these risks to a minimum. However, these arguments are not consistent, for one reason, while working with the rule, the galvanized layer of lighthouses is damaged. Of course, the likelihood of rusting on the finishing layer rises with an increase in the humidity level of the environment, depends on the quality of the beacons themselves, and on other factors. But to hope in this case at the confluence of favorable circumstances is not worth it, and it is better to hedge and remove beacons from the plaster layer.

Also, the layer of plaster after drying has the property of settling, and the beacons will bulge above the level of the surface.

When can I leave beacons in plaster?Metal beacons can not be removed in the event that it is assumed on top of the plaster layer laying tiles, porcelain stoneware or other finishing materials that do not allow rust out.

#### Cover

Cover is the third final layer of plaster. Its thickness should not be more than 2 mm, and it should be perfect. To do this, all the components of the mixture are carefully sieved, so that no crumbs, debris particles lead to the formation of furrows and defects in the next stage of work - trowelling.

So, the execution of the covering starts with checking that the previous layer has hardened well. Then it is moistened with water using a brush and a trowel is applied a thin layer of solution. Align the resulting surface with a half-wedge, creating with its help wave-like movements from the bottom up.

#### Grout

Once you have completed the plaster application, you can safely proceed with the trowelling. There are a couple of ways, among which you can choose the most suitable:

• round: the wooden float is pressed tightly against the surface and started to drive it counterclockwise, while cutting the edges of possible irregularities and defects. If at the same time the layer of the covering has already hardened, then try to soak it a little with water and a brush, so that it can be subjected to mechanical action;
• at a stretch: everything is the same, only with sharp, direct movements. As a result, you can get a better and smoother surface, especially if you take into account that this type of grout is used with more expensive and quality blends. Often such grouting is carried out after a circular, so the result can be called generally ideal.

After carrying out all these activities, you can walk on the surface of a grater, wool felt or felt - so you can smooth even the smallest defects and shortcomings.

#### Smoothing

Smoothing- a kind of grout, which is carried out most often after the traditional grouting. To do this, you need to use a wooden half-wipe with a rubber strip or metal gasket, depending on what coating will eventually be applied to the plaster.

First, smoothing is carried out in a vertical direction, and then in a horizontal direction. Often such an operation is also carried out after applying the last layer of plaster, even before the trowelling.

On this the whole process comes to an end, and we get a surface ready for further finishing. If all actions were performed correctly, then in the near future there will be no cracks and spots.

## A selection of videos on the plaster walls on beacons

Video: Technology of plastering works

Video: Master class from Mikhail Bezyayev

Video: Application of plaster Volma Stroi

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Tags:Plastering works
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