The principle of operation of the refrigerator

  • Refrigerator arrangement based on
  • compressor operation Unit
  • operation Structure of the compressor in the
  • refrigeratoroperation. In this article we will talk about what the principle of operation and the structure of the refrigerator are, and describe its structural elements.

    The device of the refrigerator based on the operation of the compressor

    In modern life, the units operating with the compressor are mainly operated, therefore we will consider exactly this principle of operation of the refrigerator. They consist of the following elements:

    • compressor - this device with the help of a piston injects the refrigerant in the form of gas, it also creates different pressure at different sites;
    • evaporative chamber The is a small container into which “liquid” gas flows, and it absorbs the heat that comes from the chamber of the refrigerator;
    • condenser - in this chamber the gaseous substance transfers its heat to the surrounding space;
    • thermostat - maintains the required temperature in the refrigerating chamber, which is set according to the selected mode;
    • Refrigerants - is a chemical mixture of various gases circulating through the system of the refrigerator using a compressor, and in certain areas it releases or takes heat. Freon is most often used in this system.

    The principle of operation of the unit

    The most important thing for understanding that the is how the refrigerator works, you need to understand the fact that this compress-type device itself “creates” cold. It arises due to the ongoing process within the system of the unit - the refrigerant releases its heat, which is subsequently released into the external environment. As mentioned above, the most common substance for this is "Freon", which is used in the schemes of these refrigerators.

    So, the operation of the refrigerator is arranged on cycles that proceed as follows:

    • freon enters the evaporation chamber, and passing through it takes heat from the refrigeration chamber;
    • then the refrigerant goes to the compressor, which drives it to the condenser;
    • passing through the above system, consisting of spirals located in the walls of the refrigerator, freon goes through a cooling cycle and turns into a liquid-like element;
    • cooled refrigerant enters the evaporator, and during the transition into a tube of larger diameter, it turns into a gaseous mixture by lowering the pressure, after which it again takes heat from the refrigerating chamber.

    This cycle will be repeated until the required temperature set by the system program is formed in the refrigerator. As soon as it falls below the programmed mark, the cycle resumes.

    The device of the compressor in the refrigerator

    This is perhaps the most important detail, thanks to which the cooling refrigerant circulates through the system. In modern refrigerators, an inverter control device is used, thereby the creators have achieved the extension of the life of the "engine" unit.

    A start-up relay is used for more efficient functionality, which is aimed at protecting the compressor from overheating. It is responsible for the activation factor of the starting winding. Since the compressor has an asynchronous operation, the metal part inside it heats up as it works, when it reaches a certain temperature, the relay will turn off the system in order to prevent overheating.

    Two-compartment refrigerators

    The only thing that can be noted is that each chamber has its own evaporative element, and these two compartments are completely isolated from each other. The principle of operation of the two-chamber unit is that, before entering the refrigerator chamber, it is first cooled by the evaporator in the freezer to a certain point, and only after cooling it enters the above compartment, where it takes heat, and everything happens according to the already describedabove the work cycle. As soon as the desired temperature is reached, the system stops the refrigerator compressor.

    Today, in everyday life, two-chamber units are used more often, in which one compressor is used for the entire system. However, there are two-compressor units with each separate “engine” to the refrigerating and freezing chambers. This allows you to turn off a separate unnecessary compressor in case of need and stop the operation of one of the chambers without damaging performance.

    Absorption Refrigerator

    The principle of operation in these units is due to the fact that they evaporate their working mixture. Often used for this ammonia. The refrigerant is circulated by dissolving it in an aqueous medium. After that, this mixture of elements enters the system, and when it enters the so-called dephlegmator, it is divided into two initial components. When, after this reaction, ammonia is used, it enters the condenser, where it turns into a liquid, and the cycle repeats.

    However, these types of refrigerators in everyday life are used extremely rarely, since ammonia itself is poisonous. They are used as an alternative to the replacement of compressor units, if it is not possible to install them.


    We told you about the principle of operation and the structure of the refrigerator, what type of operation they are, and how the process works. This article will be able to explain to you how your unit works, and will contribute to an understanding of the proper operation of the device.

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