Wisteria, which care and cultivation in the subtropical zone seamlessly, in other climatic zones requiresspecial attention. The second name is Wisteria and it is one of the most flowering plants. Having seen once it is impossible not to fall in love with a gorgeous liana with a waterfall of blooming inflorescences and a pleasant sweetish aroma. To have such wealth in your garden is the dream of every gardener.
Let me introduce myself
Wisteria is a plant that looks like a huge decorative vine that belongs to the legume family. Basically it is tree-like and deciduous, but sometimes there are half-leaved, woody specimens at the base. The plant got its name in honor of the American professor of anatomy Caspar Wistar and translated from Greek means “sweet”.For decorative purposes, the plant is grown worldwide. But the main area of distribution is East Asia and North America, mainly in subtropical zones. Also found in the forests of China, in the Kuban, in the Crimea, in the North Caucasus. In general, there are 9-10 varieties, but in the garden they grow only two - lush and Chinese.
This is a fast-growing perennial,( trees live for 150 years), growing in height up to 18 m. The branches are represented by climbing vines. They are bare( sometimes there are specimens with pubescence) and drooping. The size of the plant is impressive - in the girth of the vine can reach 0.4 m. The shoots of wisteria are thin, painted in green, the bark is gray.
Wisteria foliage is pinnate, colored dark or light green, located alternately and consists of 7–13 fragments, each of which has an oblong-ovate or narrowly elliptical shape. In general, leaf length in length reaches 30 cm.
Flowering of wisteria occurs twice a year. The first time is in March-May, the second time is in the middle or end of summer. Some species may have different budding time. Externally, the flower is a drooping bunch, consisting of a set of densely planted buds. On average, the length of the bunch is 10-80 or 100-120 cm. The flowers bloom from the base to the top of the bunch, emitting a delicate scent. There is a snow-white corolla and zygomorphic perianth.
Bud color is varied. Mostly pink, white, various shades of purple and lilac.
At the end of flowering, fruits are formed - pods of 15 cm in size, containing brown-black colored, flat-rounded seeds.
While engaged in growing and caring for wisteria( photos of the most elegant specimens are presented), you need to remember that some plants are poisonous, so you should be extremely careful and wash your hands thoroughly after contact.
Wisteria: care and cultivation in the middle lane
In contrast to the habitual zone for wisteria, growth in the middle lane is problematic. Long and very cold winters can save only young shoots and rhizomes. Flowering also expects much to be desired - adult plants bloom only at 6-8 years of age. And where the summer is cold and rainy - you need to try hard to see the buds.
The ideal environment is a constant temperature without sudden drops, both during the day and at night, as well as a lot of sunlight.
For good development in the middle lane, you need to create growing conditions and care for the wisteria close to ideal.
Choosing a landing site and ground
Wisteria is a very thermophilic plant, therefore it prefers sunny areas and walls of buildings facing south. Open areas are not recommended, it is better to land a liana along a high fence or under the wall of a house.
Full and abundant flowering is possible only in bright light at least 6 hours a day. In doing so, avoid winds and drafts.
The wisteria is not particularly demanding on the soil. As a rule, it grows well on any soil, but black soil or rich loams are especially favored. But the limestone substrate or marshy completely unacceptable.
care features In the ground, a liana is planted in early June, preparing a well of 60 * 60 cm and making a preliminary mineral fertilizer for digging 25-30 g per m2.
In order for the vine not to rot and not get wet, a good drainage layer must be laid on the bottom of the hole. This will further protect the root.
Like planting wisteria, care has its own nuances:
- After planting, the plant should be watered well.
- You should wait for the adaptation, which lasts about a month. After that, the vine will grow and it will need to establish support.
- In hot weather or during drought, watering should be periodic and sufficient.
- Allowed spraying vines in the summer.
- At the approach of the summer period, watering is reduced by the end.
- As feed, use rotted manure with water( 20: 1) or mineral fertilizers( dissolve 20 g in a bucket of water).
- When the foliage has fallen, pruning should be done. It is also held in the spring during active growth.
- Before the first frost, the liana is removed from the supports, placed on boards on the ground and carefully covered with moss, and then with lutrasil. Radical areas should be "brought" land. This procedure is especially important for young plants.
Leningradskaya and Rostov Oblast
Many gardeners pick up Chinese or many-flowered varieties to grow and care for wisteria in the Leningrad Region. Alas, this is completely unacceptable for this area. As a rule, the plant dies. If it is possible to grow a vine, its flowering will be very scarce - just a couple of frail inflorescences.
It is best to give preference to a hybrid variety characterized by high frost resistance - “Blue Moon”.This is a high-grade variety, which will not only develop well, but also give an excellent flowering. Planting is carried out by seedlings, planted in the ground with the onset of June. To prevent the plant from dying in winter, before frost, the liana should be carefully removed from the supports and carefully insulated with lutrasil. Likewise, come when planting and caring for wisteria in the Rostov region.
Ural and Moscow region
Wisteria does not tolerate a decrease in temperature by more than 20 degrees. Therefore, the cultivation and care of wisteria in the Moscow region is extremely difficult. There are special requirements for the preservation of vines in the winter. It is best to overwinter the plant when culture is cultivated in a container manner.
It should be borne in mind that the “house” for the vine is not small - at least 40 liters. In the course are plastic fonts, tubs, garden barrels.
Growing wisteria in the Urals is similar. Yes, you have to work hard, but the result will surprise you.
With the arrival of autumn, before the first snow falls, the vine in the tank is sent to winter in a warm room, where you can provide a minimum of six hours of lighting. In this case, water the plant should be once a week. Feeding excluded.
With the onset of March, the vine is transferred to a bright room and well watered 2-3 times / week. Spraying with growth stimulants is allowed.
The practice of gardeners shows that even with seed growing of frost-resistant wisteria in the Moscow region and in the Urals, the liana will be able to produce abundant two-time flowering( in summer and autumn).True to begin with, you have to wait a long time for the sprout to turn into an adult tree.
Wisteria is incredibly beautiful. It is not surprising that absolutely everyone wants to see it. But growing wisteria in Siberia is almost impossible. Even a variety like Blue Moon, capable of withstanding forty-degree frosts, leans towards the environment. In addition to the mild and warm climate, the wisteria needs a long vegetative period. It is he who is responsible for the abundant and long flowering. The climate of Siberia can not provide the necessary conditions. Even if you contrive and grow a vine, covering it and protecting it from frost( providing good shelter for the winter), and carefully watching that the plant does not get wet, the flowering most likely will not come. If a miracle happens, the inflorescences will be weak and isolated.
Belarus and Ukraine
These countries are in a climate much warmer than in central Russia. So gardeners can be happy - they can grow wisteria. And they can grow thermophilic varieties, for example, "Chinese".
Growing wisteria in Belarus, prefer seedlings. At the age of one year they are planted on a sunny plot when the ground and the environment are well warmed. This time comes in April-May. Flowering in adult vines will occur in the summer months, starting in late June. With the arrival of autumn, the plant should be well insulated.
Reproduction of wisteria
There are several reproduction options for Wisteria, each of which is good in its own way.
layouts In addition to reliability and simplicity, the method is good in that it transfers all the signs of the mother plant to the children. They take a part of the shoots of the last year and, with the arrival of spring or autumn, they dig a row about 20 cm deep along them, bring in nutrient-rich soil, and spill them well with water. A little above the kidneys make small cuts on the shoot and place the shoot into the hole, not forgetting to pin it down so that it does not crawl, and sprinkle it with earth.
The top of the shoot can not be covered with earth, the plant will “breathe” through it. It will just need to be tied to a peg in an upright position.
The shoot taking roots in leaf nodes is separated from the “mother” only after 1-1.5 years. If its root has strongly developed - it is immediately transplanted to a permanent in the ground, weakly - in pots and sent to grow further.
Cut them in the fall from the middle zone of ripe shoots. Each branch should have two buds and a length of 5-8 cm. After they are planted and kept until spring at 3 ° C.With the onset of April-May, the cuttings are transplanted into containers with wet sand on the soil surface. Planting is carried out vertically to a depth of 4 cm, respecting the distance between the cuttings of 10 cm. In the spring they are transplanted into pots and sent for rearing. A year later, the vines can be planted on a permanent in the ground.
Winter Root Inoculation
The method is very complex, but transmits all varietal characteristics. In the autumn, seedlings with non-varietal wisteria are dug out, root is separated( the roots should be at least 6 cm thick), transplanted in a container with sand and sent to a cool place devoid of light. In December and January, they bring in heat. Two weeks later, a graft wisteria of 6 cm in length is inoculated, having 2 buds and a sharp cut 2-3 cm below the lowest. A similar cut is made at the root of the rootstock for tighter contact. The vaccination site is well fixed with a plaster.
Next, the cuttings are planted in a container with a nutrient substrate, not buried in the place of vaccination, and covered with glass. Conditions of further maintenance: minimum 15 ° C and humidity 80%.If everything is done correctly, in two weeks shoots from axillary buds should appear. Well rooted vines can be transplanted into the ground.
seeds Sow seeds in March in open ground or in December in small greenhouses. In the second case, a mixture of leaf and sod land with sand( 4: 1: 1) is used as a substrate. The seeds are simply laid out on the ground and lightly sprinkled with sand, covered with glass and sent to a warm( at least 20 ° C) and dark place. At the same time control that the soil was constantly wet.
A month later, the seeds will hatch, after another 1.5 weeks they are brought to the light, pritenaya at first from the sun. When there are 2 single-leafed leaves, they do a picking, trying not to damage the roots. In the future, these shoots can be used for vaccinations. Note that homemade wisteria from seeds does not transmit varietal characteristics. Therefore, its flowering may not occur or be very scarce and then after 8 years.
As can be seen, growing wisteria and caring for it in the middle climate zone has considerable difficulties. But it's never too late to experiment. With all the nuances you can grow a real beauty. Of course, not the same as in China, but its bloom will delight you.