The diet of any person should include at least 70% of vegetables. A good addition is fresh greens, the chemical composition of which is rich in valuable vitamins and minerals. Arugula is considered to be one of the most popular salad ingredients, but when grown in summer cottages, it is rarely possible to obtain a product with an exquisite spicy-nutty flavor. The whole secret lies in agricultural technology, rules of planting and care, which will be discussed in this article.
- Watering the plant
- Weeding and loosening
- Top dressing
- Pests and Prevention
What is arugula and how does it look
The plant is a type of lettuce , belongs to the Indus family of the cabbage family. Initially, greenery was considered weed, but later expanded to the lists of vegetable crops grown in our country. The demand for the product began to grow after the popularization of the Mediterranean cuisine.
Arugula contains a rich vitamin composition, which includes:
- ascorbic acid;
- vitamins B, E, PP, K;
- essential oils;
- vegetable acids( erucic, oleic, linoleic, etc.);
- steroids and other substances.
Regular consumption of greens has the following effect on the body:
- strengthens the protective function of the body;
- normalizes metabolic processes;
- soothes the nervous system;
- lowers blood cholesterol;
- increases hemoglobin.
And this is an incomplete list of the achievements of arugula, therefore is often included in the diet and therapeutic food .
Dates for sowing arugula in open field
Sow arugula several times per season, starting from April to August .It is important that the earth has time to warm up to 9-14 degrees. If planted in cold soil, the process of germination and seedling development is inhibited.
In the south and in the middle lane, you can sow from April 15.In the northern regions, it is recommended to use the greenhouse or seedling cultivation .
Grains for seedlings need to plant from late March to early April .Preliminary preparation for seeds is not required, they already have good germination. Saplings are grown in pots, boxes or cups.
Shoots appear 4-6 days after seeding. When the sprouts form 2 true leaves, it is necessary to dive the seedlings into separate containers ( plastic cups or peat pots).Grown up shoots are transferred to an open garden bed together with an earthy ball, so as not to damage the root system.
After the germination of the seedlings, it is necessary to thin the planting, leaving at first 5 cm between the shoots, and after, increasing the distance to 10 cm. The thickening has a negative effect on the taste of the salad.
The most suitable varieties for growing in the country or garden
An assortment of varieties complicates the choice in determining the variety to grow on your plot. When buying, you should familiarize yourself with a brief description of the plants and the characteristics of their agricultural practices.
Plant with average ripening period, the growing season lasts 36-38 days .The bush reaches a height of 20-30 cm, forming a raised rosette of narrow long leaves. During flowering appear light yellow inflorescences of small size.
Features of the variety: consistently yields a high yield, external similarity of the culture with dandelion.
Variety matures in about a month( vegetation 28-30 days ).The height of the bush reaches 20 cm, the stem is erect with a small edge. The plant blooms in small cream-colored inflorescences.
Plant early aging period, the growing season lasts only 21-25 days .Large-sized, saturated green leaves, in one outlet there are about 20-26 pieces. The height of the bush is about 20 cm.
To taste of arugula, sweetish with mustard notes. Seed material retains its germination for 4 years.
Plant early aging period, the growing season lasts only 20-25 days .The height of the bush does not exceed 16-20 cm. The leaves are lyrate, slightly rounded. Variety refers to the perennial.
Advantages of the plant: high yield, good transportability, high taste, which have a pronounced nutty note and a small bitterness.
Rules for planting vegetables on the bed
In order for arugula to be filled with rich green color and acquire a pleasant nutty flavor, it is necessary to strictly follow the rules of agricultural technology, in particular, planting in open ground.
Preparation of seeds before sowing
Arugula seeds should be purchased in specialized stores. When buying from hand, you will need to conduct disinfection of seed. To do this, the grains are immersed for 15 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. After the procedure, you need to thoroughly wash them under running water and dry on a towel.
No other growth stimulation treatments are carried out, since the arugula seeds are quite good.
Preparing the soil for arugula
When choosing a site for a bed for arugula, please note that the plant does not like or shade or direct sunlight. Therefore it is worth picking up a plot that is in the shade one half of the day, and the other in the sun. Ideally, in the midday hours the plants will be in partial shade.
The soil for lettuce is suitable. is fertile, loose with neutral medium or slightly acid .The following predecessors are welcome: carrots, potatoes, tomatoes, pumpkin. It is not recommended to sow arugula after: cabbage, turnip, daikon, radish and other cruciferous crops.
How to choose the plan to plant
in open ground. Sowing is done in prepared holes 2 cm deep. The interval between rows during transplantation is observed in 30-40 cm , between holes 5 cm .In each hole 2-3 seeds are filled. A week later, it is necessary to thin the beds by increasing the interval between plants to 10-15 cm.
Temperature The temperature of the 14-18 degrees is considered optimal for the growing season. At lower rates, plant development is inhibited.
The culture will survive a sharp drop in temperature to minus 7 degrees, but on the condition that the cold will be short. If there are frosts after sowing, then it is necessary to construct a shelter of polyethylene film.
Watering the plant
The soil should always be wet in the beds with arugula, so irrigation is carried out regularly. Watering mode: 3-4 times a week .
With steady heat, it is necessary to moisten the soil daily. From the lack of moisture leaves get a bitter taste, and the plant itself produces color.
Weeding and Loosening
For normal vegetation, the plant requires loose soil , therefore after each watering or through time it is necessary to podushivat ground with a hoe or horn.
Simultaneously with this procedure, weeding is performed. Weeds thicken the planting, which provokes the development of fungal diseases, the attraction of pests. In addition, the proximity with weeds can adversely affect the taste of arugula.
The soil for lettuce should be well fertilized. Then for the entire growing season you will need the entire 1-2 feed .
The introduction of complex mineral compounds should not be , because for a short time toxins accumulated in the leaves, do not have time to decompose. It is better to use a solution of chicken manure or rotted manure with irrigation water. Also suitable nitrogen fertilizers.
chicken manure solution. Pests and Prevention
Arugula leaves contain a large amount of essential oils, their fragrance frightens off many pests. However, this does not protect against fungal infections that develop well in a moist environment - the soil.
With the defeat of the root system, the stem begins to fade. When the roots of the fungal disease bubbles form small brown color. When the first signs of the disease are detected, the bush must be removed from the bed, and the soil must be treated with antifungal preparations.
cruciferous fleas , lovers of radishes and different types of lettuce can damage the leaves of arugula. If you cover the seedlings with lutrasil, then the pest will go to look for food in another place.
Those already experienced in the cultivation of arugula know that when the plants are kept in a garden bed, the leaves become hard and bitter in taste. Therefore, the harvest should be on time, should not be postponed .
One of the signs of ripeness is the length of the sheet, it should reach not less than 10 cm .After the ejection of the peduncle, the taste qualities of the salad deteriorate.
Large sockets are cut off completely, other bushes are partially cut off. Use leaves for cooking better fresh. In the refrigerator to lie harvest, wrapped in food film, can only a few days.
To summarize, it is worth noting that the cultivation of arugula is a fascinating and simple affair. Adhering to the general rules for the care of a plant can enrich the body with beneficial trace elements, strengthen the immune system and even rejuvenate the skin.
It is possible to plant and grow arugula not only at the cottage or garden, but also at home - on a windowsill or balcony. The main thing is to get acquainted with the compatibility with other plants, plant seeds according to the rules and maintain the temperature at home.