Potatoes during the entire flowering period of ripening very actively consume mineral fertilizers. The roots of the plant are weak, and the tubers grow large and numerous, which is why he regularly lacks micro and macro components. In the autumn, after harvesting, the land becomes exhausted, and if it is not fed, then next year there will be nothing to collect. Consider how to fertilize the culture in the open field.
- Fertilizers for potatoes: features, how and when to make
- When planting into the hole in the spring
- Mineral fertilizers and green manure: that
- need spring Complex fertilizer
- ash when planting potatoes
- Nitrogen dressing
- Planting potatoes with manure in nests
- Liquid fertilizers
- Fertilizerin the soil
- The process of fertilizing the land
- Calculation of the amount of fertilizer
Fertilizers for potatoes: features, how and when to apply
PThe red potato harvest will be after you have purchased the plot and started processing it. Tselina has many nutrients that are necessary for the growth of potatoes.
Over the years the land will become poorer .Potatoes need fertilizer at the stage of land preparation for planting, and throughout the cultivation period.
When disembarking the hole in the spring
This should be done directly into the nest when disembarking. You can add a sand spade to the prepared nest together with top dressing, then the tubers will be clean and the wireworm will not harm the parasite.
In the nest simultaneously with the sand throw a volume of one liter capacity of manure or compost .If the land is rich in minerals, you can make 1⁄2 liter cans of organic matter. Then pour a handful of ash into the hole, mix everything thoroughly and you can plant potatoes.
If mineral supplements, you must deposit them in the well according to the instructions on the package. They can also be mixed with sand and then planted tubers.
Mineral fertilizers and siderats: what is needed in the spring
These additives perfectly enrich the earth and greatly increase the yield of .In the autumn you need to take care of feeding the land. To this end, wicked in the winter. This is a wonderful vegetable addition that collects nitrogen and other microcomponents in its stems.
Other siderats are known. These are: mustard, oats, lupins, wheat. These plants help the growth of tuberous microbes, they give out nitrogen.
The method of application is not complicated. Before planting potatoes, siderats are sown when plowing the ground.
The preparation is made from a mineral material with a large number of phosphorus, which is treated with other compounds: with nitric acid, ammonium sulfate, potassium chloride .
As a result, receive additional nutrition, consisting of:
- Ammonium and potassium nitrate;
- Calcium chloride and ammonium.
Its composition depends on how it was made.
There are three types of fertilizer:
- Sulfuric acid;
Phosphate rock is most suitable for potatoes. In strongly sandy and sod-podzolic lands, it is possible to use the sulphate type. Fertilizer should be without chlorine, which reduces plant growth.
Potatoes that are set aside for germination, after six days are treated with fertilizer solution. This is done only once.
Comprehensive dressings are loved by many plants - they provide potatoes with all the useful and necessary substances.
Mineral are chemical compounds from salts used by gardeners for top dressing.
Individual fertilizer enhances certain qualities of potatoes at all stages of growth. The combination of some species is more effective for the overall growth of potatoes.
Today there are several types of such additives. They have two or more necessary components and trace elements. Consider the most effective of them and the order of processing.
Highly productive, nitrogen-phosphoric - in peas. It is used on different types of land for main and separate use, for feeding potatoes during the growth of .
Not a simple, three-component substance consisting of: nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium. It is applied on different types of lands, for various crops.
Concentrate, highly productive dressing consisting of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium. It is made in granules. It is used on land depleted in nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium.
Highly productive, complex fertilizer consisting of sulfur.
Ash when planting potatoes
Woody ash - these are the remains of plants after the fire. They have 74 chemical components that are necessary for the growth of potatoes. Due to its heterogeneous composition, it serves as an organic substitute for non-natural mineral fertilizing, which fertilizes tubers.
For a great harvest, you need to correctly apply this supplement, and not just pour "the more the better."
The chemical composition depends on the from which the ash is obtained:
- tree( birch or pine) - 14% potassium and 7% phosphorus, perfectly limits acidic lands;
- Sunflower and buckwheat - Potassium and 35% calcium;
- Wheat and Rye - Phosphorus;
- Stems Potatoes - 30% Potassium, 20% Calcium, 8% Phosphorus;
- The absence of chlorine distinguishes it from other similar feedings, but it also does not contain nitrogen, therefore it is necessary to use it in the complex.
For potatoes, it is best to use these fertilizers with a small amount of chlorine. Potash is:
- Potassium Sulphate;
- Dust from cement granules;
Its advantage is the presence of ash tree. Potassium in it is available without chlorine, which is very well affects the collection and properties of potatoes .
In addition to potassium, they have phosphorus, calcium and trace elements needed for potatoes. On average, the consumption rate is 150 kilograms per hectare.
For sandy lands, the standard is increased, and on clay soils, doses are reduced.
They are used in the form of ammonium sulfate or ammonium nitrate.
You need to be careful with them: they are required most during the growth period of , if you increase the dose, then all the benefits will go to the stems, and the fruits will be poor.
Nitrogen increases plant growth and vegetation. If the saturation is large, the roots can get burned, and harmful substances can accumulate in the fruit.
Of all these feedings, only carbamide is placed in the ground in autumn and spring. Ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate are used only in spring, before they plan to plant tubers.
additives do not deposit deep into the ground, but sprinkle them over the surface. Ammonium sulfate is forbidden to mix with dolomite flour, and urea with superphosphate.
Phosphorus-based products increase the growth of the roots, the color and fruiting of potatoes. It is very important to apply them at the very beginning of plant development. Phosphorus increases the frost resistance of plants, and has a good effect on the storage properties of tubers.
Phosphorus is needed in moderate quantities, but an excess or deficiency does not have a detrimental effect on the potato.
When choosing a top dressing, you need to remember that phosphorus is in the ash, humus and good nitrogen manure.
will come to the rescue. Planting potatoes with manure in the nests of
In order for manure to act well on picking potatoes, it is necessary to add to the soil in rotten form. Manure must be distributed in areas and dig. Manure is made at the rate of 400 kg per site.
There is another method of making it when planting potatoes. Dung add 300 g per well. For uniform distribution of the , an dimensional capacitance is used. After adding manure to the hole, it is covered with soil, and potatoes are placed on top.
Superphosphate provides excellent result of foliar fertilizer of potatoes. It is made after the flowering of potatoes, as it contains hydrolysis.
Introduction to the foliage of chemical components can lead to the binding of photosynthesis. The result may be a root disease and a poor harvest. To avoid this you need to withstand the time of feeding.
It is a chemical substance containing 45% nitrogen, ensures the growth of potatoes. To feed potatoes with this remedy does not harm fruits and foliage.
They are prepared by diluting mineral supplements and minerals with water. To do this, take mullein, bird droppings, manure, and other .
Use them before flowering, when the plant growth reaches 15 centimeters.
For the manufacture of liquid fertilizers H2O bred:
- 4-5 shares of cow manure;
- 2-3 parts of manure slurry;
Mineral supplements - according to the instructions.
Liquid dressings fill the wells, or irrigate between the rows of .Feeding is done twice.
Humus is added in the spring, either directly to the well, or to the furrow during planting. This is the most budget option. It increases soil fertility, assists in increasing the yield.
Humus is an excellent addition to potatoes. It is best to cook it yourself, then it turns out clean.
For this you need to take 9/10 waste and 1/10 of the soil .Put in a prepared container, move it carefully. After one two months can use.
In the countryside, there are no problems with organic matter. In every village there is cattle, poultry, which gives excellent organic fertilizers.
If there is a lot of manure , then it is simply distributed in the fields and dug up. Do not abuse the organic.
There are still organics such as:
- Bird droppings;
Planting potatoes with chicken manure
You cannot use chicken manure undiluted. To use it, you need to prepare a solution in the ratio of 1 to 15.
It is necessary to water the bushes under the root with the solution.
Root and foliar fertilizers
Potato feeding can be root or foliar. When root fertilizers can be put under the root, and when foliar plants are sprayed.
The root include :
Top dressing potatoes carry out:
What are the requirements for fertilizers
The types of fertilizers and how they affect are indicated in this table.
|Trace||What is important||What is fraught with a lack|
|Nitrogen||Promotes rapid growth||too early maturation, which affects the small harvest|
|Phosphorus||Increases weight starch and protects against fungal diseases||Tubers may have rust color|
|Potassium||strengthens the immune system to variousdiseases, affects the safety of tubers||Reduced yield, not stored for a long time|
Factors affecting the yield of potatoes
The number of potato crops will depend on the full range of conditions and factors:
- Quality of planting material;
- How well will be processed potatoes before planting;
- Whether the technology was respected during landing;
- In what area and under what weather conditions was the crop grown;
- In what soil is the potato planted;
- How watering was done;
- Have the standards been observed when planting potatoes;
- How the pest control of the plant was conducted.
How to fertilize potatoes
Many gardeners are interested in the question of how to fertilize potatoes. Here are a few methods:
- Solid .This method assumes that fertilizers will be applied to the entire sown area;
- Local .With this method, fertilizing is introduced directly into the ground near the plants.
Professionals advise the use of the second method, since it is more effective. Chicken dung, manure, ash and mineral resources are used as fertilizers.
It must be remembered that it is not necessary to overdo it with additives, it is necessary to maintain a balance and always correctly calculate the dose.
Autumn soil preparation
Soil preparation in the fall is the key to a good potato harvest for the next year. The soil is prepared by before the onset of frosts .
Today, gardeners use two methods of soil preparation in the fall:
- Gentle preparation, deep loosening.
The site is dug up on the spade bayonet, at the same time removing all the weeds and making the necessary fertilizers. It is better if manure is taken as top dressing. Bring it at the rate of 7 kilograms of manure per m2 .You can add potassium sulfate and superphosphate.
- Use of siders.
The soil is being dug up and planted on the plot with green plants, which in the spring mow and fall asleep ten centimeters of soil. It enriches the soil very well.
If top dressing is not made on time.
It is better to feed when first tuding .After that within three weeks the plant will grow by a third, it is necessary to re-fill it and feed it again. Also during hilling, you can feed the tubers with mineral supplements containing nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus.
Than to fertilize during the formation and maturation of tubers
Conducting foliar feeding, the plant is saturated with microelements, as a result, the potato will be large and tasty.
Top dressing is done twice:
- After the flowering period of , the plants need to be fed with manganese and boron. This will improve the taste of potatoes and will not allow voids in the tubers.
For dressing, it is enough to buy mineral dressings in the store and dilute them in accordance with the instructions.
- A month before the harvest, a second dressing is carried out. To do this, apply a universal fertilizer, which includes phosphorus and superphosphate.
How to feed after the shoots of
After the first shoots have appeared, the potatoes can and must be fertilized. At this time, the plant requires nitrogen, which will increase and strengthen its growth.
The main requirement for feeding, it is compliance with the dosage. If the plant to overfeed with nitrogen, then all the power goes into the tops, and the tubers will not get anything.
leaves can also be burned with , if the dosage is exceeded, can be burned, which is not very beneficial for the crop.
Methods of Fertilizing the Soil
There are two ways to add fertilizer to the soil: spreading and local.
When first taken, take a dose and scatter on the ground manually, evenly. The same technique produces foliar feedings of potatoes. After that, they dig up the earth and water it.
Local application is divided into two types: in a row and into the well of .It consists in mixing fertilizers with a small amount of soil and forming foci saturated with fertilizers.
On time: there is a regular fertilizing when planting or fertilizing during the growth of the plant. The most effective is the introduction of additives simultaneously with organic.
The process of fertilizing the earth
Spread three methods technology fertilizer soil:
The overload method assumes the section of the machine and technological functions of the .Fertilizers are immersed in one car, transported to the field, unloaded into another vehicle for dispersion across the field.
The transfer method is used for the distribution on the field of organic fertilizers. Organics are put on the edges of the field, and then transported across the field with the help of special equipment.
Calculation of the amount of fertilizer
The norm is considered to be the active substance -% of the nutrient content per component.
Not all gardeners can calculate the norm using difficult and inconvenient formulas. Therefore, it is often used already calculated norms.
Organics contribute to the soil in the main with buckets. In one 10 liter bucket fits about 5-9 pounds of humus, compost or peat.
Mineral fertilizers are measured in cans or glasses. The following amount of fertilizer is included in one glass:
- Saltpeter , ammonium sulphate - 160-180 g;
- Superphosphate , fertilizer mix-200g;
- Phosphorus -350g;
- Potassium Chloride -190g;
- Lime -120g;
- Potassium -260g;
Different soil composition in different areas. Fertilizers can correct any deficiencies in the soil; if fertilized correctly and if planting technology is observed, they will help to grow a decent crop.