A constant increase in the number of electricity consumers significantly increases its cost, which rises every year. This problem began to worry not only environmentalists, but also many other people, since the situation is close to the complete depletion of energy resources of the earth.
- Device and principle of operation ↓
- Why are you in a private house? ↓
- Advantages and disadvantages ↓
- Kinds ↓
- How to install do it yourself? ↓
- Price and reviews ↓
That is why, over the past few decades, many companies have paid attention to the process of obtaining energy from renewable resources: the energy of water, land, the sun. Today you can take advantage of this work, as the production of solar panels for industrial and domestic use allows you to provide consumers with clean energy, which you do not have to pay for.
Solar panels have been used for many years by companies that promote fight for the environment or try to save on a source of electricity thanks to modern developments.
Previously, there were practically no offers for domestic use in this area, due to the unfinished system and lack of demand, since a few decades ago, few people over the problem under consideration thought about it. What is a modern version of the equipment for the extraction and conversion of solar energy into electricity?
Device and principle of operation
Such a system, as a rule, consists of the following basic elements:
- Panels that collect radiant energy. The power of the installation depends on their surface area. But at the same time, we note that other components of the system must also correspond to the power indicator of the panels. Many smart homes have radiant energy collection panels built into the roof.
- An energy converter is the most important element. It is built into the panel and is a semiconductor laid in a certain way, which are based on silicon crystals. Together with the protective structural elements that are included in the panels, they create the bulk of the system for collecting and converting solar energy.
- Cumulative element. Depending on the purpose of the system, a storage element is often required. Solar energy can only be collected at certain times. Moreover, bad weather, the time of year, has an impact on the duration of the solar energy collection phase. Thus, if the equipment works during the day, for example, when everything is at work and electricity consumption is minimal, then surplus can be redirected to a storage cell (batteries of various types) and at night or in inclement weather the house will also be equipped electricity.
- Current transducer. Modern household appliances are very susceptible to the purity, voltage and current strength of the supplied electricity. The panels make it so that they immediately generate current with the necessary indicators. However, in some cases, operation may be impaired and special systems for its conversion are used to control the supplied current.
Dimensional elements include panels that collect and convert energy, as well as batteries. Unfortunately, the efficiency of the solar battery depends on their overall dimensions.
The principle of operation can be described as follows:
- In the daytime, solar energy is collected. At the same time, the area of the panel and the angle of its inclination are important.
- Getting on a semiconductor with silicon crystals, quanta knock electrons from the outer orbit, which become free. A large number of free electrons creates a current situation that is suitable for domestic use.
- After that, electricity goes through the converter, if available, and distributed between the battery and consumers.
Thus, the house is supplied with electric energy.
Scope depends on latitude, geographical area and climatic conditions. With a greater departure from the equator, the duration of daylight hours decreases.
In addition, there are places with a rainy climate, which also complicates the use of such a system.
You can use solar panels on a domestic and industrial scale.
Why are you in a private house?
In a private house, such a system is able, with proper calculation and installation, to provide all consumers with electricity. In addition, there are special versions that convert the energy of the sun into heat.
In practice, installing solar panels can save a lot more in a few years than the entire system costs. In this case, it is not necessary to turn off the central power supply system. With a competent approach, you can leave the central power, but turn it on only with a small amount of energy created by solar panels.
Advantages and disadvantages
When organizing a heating system, the following advantages should be noted:
- No need to pay for expensive energythat are used when heating water in a central heating system.
- You can use modern heating systemsthat can work according to the established schedule or to maintain established microclimate indicators.
- Efficiency of modern elements of heating systems significantly higher.
There are also disadvantages:
- Efficiency of used semiconductors at the level of 30%.
- In order to drink a large house, a large number of panels for collecting solar energy should be installed.
- Considering the fact that heating is carried out in the winter, when the duration of daylight hours is entertainingly decreasing, heating failures can be expected.
- In order to increase the efficiency of the system, it is necessary to ensure high-quality thermal insulation of the premises.
- At the initial stage, high costs, since everything new and effective is not cheap.
Solar panels are classified as follows:
- According to destination - generation of electricity or thermal accumulation.
- By type of main materialused to create the converter: silicon-based or film-based.
Otherwise, their differences are insignificant.
You can make a selection by the following parameters:
- Cost. In most cases, they pay attention to this indicator. The cost of solar panels, which have an efficiency of about 37%, is significantly higher due to the characteristics of the semiconductors used.
- Manufacturer Reputation. Such systems are produced by a small number of companies, and even less is engaged in maintenance and repair. Therefore, you should pay attention to the products of well-known manufacturers who will not save on the quality of the component and this is well reflected in the reliability of their products.
- Amount of elements - with an increase in this indicator, the efficiency of use increases.
- Sizes of panels.
- The presence of protective elements - quite an important indicator. All materials that refract or trap light reduce battery performance.
When choosing, it’s also worth immediately considering where the panels will be installed, since you will need to take care of the fastening as well.
How to install do it yourself?
You can install on the roof of the house with the following materials and tools:
- wooden blocks or metal profile;
The installation process can be described as follows:
- In order that the heating of the roof does not affect the operation of the system, a frame is made, which determines the presence of a gap of about 15 centimeters.
- We mark on the ground.
- We assemble the frame from a metal profile or bars according to the size of the panels. We use screws to connect.
- We fix the frame on the roof.
- We fasten the panels to the frame.
- We connect the panels to other elements of the system.
To create, you need to carry out the following steps:
- Choose the most suitable photocell.
- Create a frame that will not pass the infrared spectrum and protect the solar cells from mechanical stress.
- Solder the photocells together.
- Seal the panel.
http://www.youtube.com/watch? v = 3OKaBjTcvlg
Price and reviews
The price largely depends on the prestige of the manufacturer and on the type of substance used to create the semiconductor, as well as from the equipment used in the system. For example, the Vaillant auroTherm plus VFK 150 H costs about $ 1000, and the Vaillant set auroSTEP plus 250 P HF is already $ 5000, as it is equipped with a special water heater.
You can do everything yourself and in a short period of time.
- Michael, city Izhevsk “I bought batteries immediately with a water heater and after installation in the summer we don’t pay for electricity at all.”
- Artem, city Saratov. “If to summarize my experience of use, then you need to be prepared to clean the panels from snow, dirt, bird droppings. Otherwise, you will sit without heat and light. ”