Hydrocarbons have been and remain the main source of energy, but more often refers to mankind vospolnimo and environmentally friendly resources. This has resulted in increased interest in solar panels and generators.
However, many are hesitant to install the solar system because of the high cost of everything complex. Reduce the cost of production can be, if we take its own creation. Doubt their own abilities?
We'll tell you how to make a solar cell with his hands, using the available accessories. In this article you will find all the necessary information in order to perform the calculation of solar and choose the components of the complex, complete installation of graphic panels.
The content of the article:
- Pros and cons of the use of solar systems
- What components are needed and where to buy them
- power calculation systems Features
Step by step instructions for the solar panel assembly
- Step 1: production casing design
- Step 2: installation and fastening elements
- Step 3: cover fixing features
- Step 4: Set the finished system
- Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Pros and cons of the use of solar systems
According to statistics, adult daily uses about a dozen different devices operating on the network. Although electricity is considered to be relatively environmentally friendly source of energy, this is an illusion, because when it is getting used resources, pollute the environment.
From this point of view, solar much more advantageous.
The efficiency of crystalline silicon PV modules reaches 15 - 20%, and there is every reason to believe that this figure will rise in the coming years. Already today there exist samples whose efficiency reaches 22-33.7%. As long as they are tested in laboratory conditions, but will be available soon. When selecting PV modules is necessary to pay attention to the products of the company Sanyo
The average efficiency of the batteries of this type is 10-18.7%. It all depends on the basics of film solar cells. Some models are potentially unsafe for the environment because containing cadmium, so you should carefully examine the technical documentation for the purchase. Dispose of these batteries in strict accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations
Modules of this type are also called multi-junction or tandem. They have a special structure of the cells that form more p-n junctions. This is a relatively new product on the market, although the space industry is used for a long time. Efficiency (respectively, and the price) of these models depends on the number of layers of cells
It elements made of nanostructured materials. They are used in industries where light weight solar modules is crucial. Due to the hyperfine structure can significantly increase the efficiency of such batteries. For the average buyer ultrathin modules are not yet available
Crystalline silicon PV modules
Thin-film solar cells
Multi-layer solar modules
Ultra-thin multi-layer solar modules
Components for assembly solar and generators have long been commercially available, and if you want to assemble a system can be anyone. This will require some financial investment and time. The assembly process laborious, requires attention and accuracy, but the work itself is not very labor intensive.
Due to the climatic characteristics of many regions do not have to expect that solar energy is enough to fully meet the private house. It is able to cover only 20-30% of all energy needs. But this is a good solution to give
The advantages of using solar energy:
- huge potential. Sun is able to provide enough energy to meet all human needs. It is renewable and inexhaustible than favorably with coal, petroleum, natural gas.
- Availability. The sun is everywhere - in hot countries, and in the coldest. It is sufficient for all needs.
- Environmentally friendly. Due to the total energy crisis "green" energy - the most promising area for scientific research and high-tech developments. Solar panels do an excellent job with their task without harm to the environment.
- No noise. Solar systems work silently, that distinguishes them from many other sources of energy.
- economy. Operation and maintenance of solar panels do not require any special costs. Investing money one time, the owner can use the system for 20-25 years. The main thing - in a timely manner to clean the elements.
- Wide range of applications. Solar panels can produce enough energy to provide electricity and heat to the house. However, this is not the only area of their application. Solar energy is used for water desalination and even to power orbital stations.
So far, solar road panels, although now there are ways to save considerably in their independent manufacturing. Each year, introduced new developments that simplify and reduce the cost of the process of obtaining solar energy.
Solar poorly suited as a primary energy source, but as an additional or alternative - great. Compared with wind turbines, they are more stable and profitable
Interesting development - flexible solar cells. Due to the elasticity, fotopolotno much easier to install - panel "adjusted" to the shape of the roof or other support.
One of modern technology - thin-film modules that are embedded in the building materials. Also appeared transparent storage elements for use in window structures.
Is the development of a Japanese company Sharp. Experts believe that at times has become stronger and more profitable in the near future such solar cells.
With the accumulation of solar energy often arise problems since road rechargeable battery. The only thing to some extent compensates for this disadvantage: most of the high-power electrical appliances switched on during daylight hours (+)
For objective reasons, solar still can not fully replace hydrocarbons as reception and accumulation due to the high cost of solar energy, but they can be a good source of alternative energy supply at home or individual appliances.
Some owners decide to equip their homes with solar stations, self-sufficient energy needs. Such investments pay off in 10-40 years depending on the type of models - of ready or homemade
Technologies are developing rapidly, and the solar panels can be upgraded and build, so you should start collecting suitable system now.
A detailed review of the types of solar cells is given in this article.
What components are needed and where to buy them
The main part - the solar graphic panels. Typically, silicon wafers purchased through the Internet with delivery from China and the USA. This is due to the high price of domestically produced components.
Cost domestic plates becomes so high that it is cheaper to order on eBay. As for marriage, it is only 100 plates 2-4 unusable. If ordering Chinese plate, the above risks, since the quality leaves much to be desired. Advantage - only in price.
The finished panel is much easier to use, but also three times more expensive, so it is still puzzled search for components and assemble the device with your hands
The rest of the components can be purchased at any electronics store. Also need tin solder, frame, glass, foil, tape and a pencil for marking.
The choice of solar cell battery - the most important stage in the purchase of parts. Batteries can be poly- and monocrystalline. The advantage of the first - the price, and secondly - the high efficiency. It is better to choose a single-crystal silicon modules. They are ideal for limited space objects
The best option - to choose AGM battery type. They are relatively inexpensive, compact, able to operate at all temperatures. When you purchase should be guided by the device capacity, charging time and lifetime specified by the manufacturer
Furthermore solar cell stabilizer and the battery, also require soldering, tin and pencil. If you originally purchased ready-made kit with soldered wires, work will be much less, and when reassembling the system is simplified considerably
To assemble the battery required voltage regulator and load controller. If properly assemble a homemade system, it can be connected to conventional batteries - lead-acid or lithium. This will allow more efficient use of energy
Solar cells for battery
Battery for solar system
Kit for battery assembly
a voltage regulator for solar panel
When buying components necessary to pay attention to the manufacturer's warranty. Usually it is 10 years, in some cases - up to 20. It is also important to choose the right battery. Savings on it often leads to trouble: during the charging device can be released hydrogen, which is fraught with explosion.
power calculation systems Features
Before you purchase accessories and make solar panel calculates the required capacity of the device and the battery capacity.
The easiest way - to use online calculators posted on some sites on the Internet.
The amount of energy stated in the data sheet products, calculated for ideal conditions. They are impossible to navigate, because the devices work differently depending on the time of day and year. Energy losses occur continuously, including in batteries, the inverter (+)
Important factors that have to be taken into account - the average monthly amount of energy consumed. It can be determined by the meter.
You should also make allowance for the features of the solar panels themselves. They are capable of delivering the maximum power only when the clear sky, and the angle of incidence of sunlight should be straight.
If the weather is cloudy, or the angle of incidence is too sharp, the battery capacity may drop 20 times. Even the slightest of clouds enough to halve the figures. Therefore, when the calculations are guided by the fact that 70% of the energy will be generated from 9 to 16 hours, and at other times - up to 30%.
Winter from solar plants of little use: due to cloudy weather, they produce a minimal amount of energy. But wind turbines operating at full capacity and are able to compensate for these losses. The combination of two such devices is very effective
In conditions close to ideal, in the "working time" panel produce 1kW power of 7 kW / h, and in the early morning and in the evening - about 3 kW / h. The second indicator is better not to take into account at all and leave "in reserve", taking into account possible changes in cloudiness and the angle of incidence of the rays.
It turns out that we should focus on the 210 kW / h for 1 calendar month. This is a perfect indicator that needs to be corrected.
On eBay you can find a good set for the manufacture of solar batteries with their own hands. Sometimes it is the device that culled in production (so-called B-type units). They are cheap, but it is quite suitable for home assembly systems, as performance are close to the
To determine the actual amount of energy should find data about the number of sunny days is in a particular region of the year. During these periods, the battery power will not be even half of the passport index. If the device will work in the fall and winter, it is necessary to make a correction of 30-50% on cloudy days.
Step by step instructions for the solar panel assembly
assembly work begins with a scheme and design. It needs to be clear, as will be arranged and fixed solar panel. Thus, if the efficiency of the system depends on the angle of inclination with respect to sunlight, care should be taken that this angle could be varied.
Many ready-made models, mechanisms are provided, automatically turning the panel, and in improvised would have to think of their own.
solar panel modules must be the same, because the current is equal to the equivalent index of the smallest element. Also the selection of the same parts will greatly simplify the assembly process of the entire system, since You do not have to adjust the size of frames and calculate the capacity of each construction separately
assembly technique depends on the total area of the panels, their number, the features of additional materials. The extensive area of the system guarantees its higher power, but at the same time increases and the weight of the structure, which is also necessary to consider, because the roof has to withstand it.
Step 1: production casing design
When all the components are prepared, you are ready to assemble the body, which will keep the whole structure.
- plywood sheets, cut to size panels;
- wooden slats of which are made bumpers;
- materials for fasteners: screws, corners, suitable adhesive composition;
- paint and impregnation, to ennoble the appearance of the finished structure and protect it from rotting.
First prepare the base - plywood glued to the low bumpers. They should not close the panel, so you should choose a rack of about 2 cm. To bumpers are not peeled off, they are additionally secured with screws and corners.
The upper cover is made of Plexiglas and coated wooden construction parts antiseptic impregnations to protect against rot and color. paint shade should blend in with the color of the roof
The bottom of the base and the bumpers are drilled in several places to ensure ventilation. The cover can not be drilled because construction elements may podmoknut. For fixing the panels is better to choose MDF boards as they do not conduct electricity. can be replaced by other material If desired, fiberboard.
Step 2: installation and fastening elements
Solar cells should be evenly spread out on the substrate "wrong" side and the solder conductors. To do this will need to mark the place of soldering. In order not to spoil all the modules connected in series is best to only two elements.
If everything is in order, just as the other modules are soldered. As a result, the substrate should appear neat chain of connected elements.
After assembly design should be checked for serviceability. If it is functional, it can already be fixed to the frame with screws. At the finished panel pose blocking diode. Its mission - to prevent the battery from draining
When all the modules are connected, they can be flipped for mounting on the panel. In can be used epoxy or silicone sealant as an adhesive. It is advisable not to smear the edge modules to constructions are not broken in the case of deformation of the carcass. Is firmly glued elements in the center.
Step 3: cover fixing features
After the battery assembly to the frame of her close lid made of plexiglass, once again check and fix. It is important that the adhesive composition is completely dried out before the installation of the cover, otherwise it will continue to evaporate and leave muddy footprints on the plexiglass.
On the output cable set two-pin connector. It is necessary for connecting the controller. There is still time to check the system and to correct deficiencies, if they are found.
Step 4: Set the finished system
Batteries installed on the ground, on the walls or roof. It depends on the wishes of the owner of the building. The main thing is that the system is located on the south side of the building and its operation is not obstructed.
If the construction is planned to be mounted on the roof of the slope, you need to make sure that the surface can support the additional load. The system is set so that it is positioned at an angle of 30-40 ° to the roof, and secured tightly.
Solar panels, especially thin film, exposed to deformation under the influence of wind or snow pressure. Care must be taken to establish a reliable wind protection and adaptation, delaying or leaping through the snow, which slides off the roof
Excellent solution - mounting system to a metal frame structure from a thick profile. Minimum cross-section - 25 * 25 mm, and with a large area of the design is better to choose a more durable profile. Before each such frame is set or a snow stop equip snegorassekatelyami brackets.
On our site there is a block of articles devoted to the assembly, installation and connection of solar panels, we advise to read:
- Schemes and ways to connect solar cells: how to carry out the installation of solar panels
- Wiring diagram Solar: the controller, the battery and serving system
Conclusions and useful videos on the topic
Descriptions are not enough to fully understand the features of the assembly and installation of solar panels. In addition, there are various ways of fixing and "craftsmen" improve their skills and are constantly inventing new ways to solve old problems.
We offer video instructions and advice of experienced craftsmen to make it easier to understand the process of assembling solar systems. Select the recommendations that best fit your plans and wishes.
Where to buy components, and how to assemble the system is described in the video below:
Full assembly step by step description of the process:
The original approach to solar cell assembly, expert advice:
Instructions for assembly of solar power for the home:
Alternative energy - this is really important. If you decide to look into ways of producing energy without hydrocarbons, can be proud of the fact that you care not only about themselves but also about the world at large.
A simple solar panel will help you to provide itself a "green" electricity and save our common home. Collect system is simple, the main thing - to want and do.
You have experience in the manufacture of solar cell? Please share the information with our readers, ask your solar method of assembly. Leave comments or upload photos, you can DIY in the form below.