What to do if there is a house, and the gas pipeline is not connected to it? The answer is simple - we need an autonomous gasification of a private house, which supplies blue fuel to the gas stove and heating boilers. The task is not easy, it requires careful design, strict adherence to building codes and special knowledge.
But still it is worth considering this option of gasification in more detail, since it has many advantages. We will describe how the system works, what work nodes are included in the autonomous complex.
We describe the specifics of operating the gas tank and cylinder gas supply, and also designate the rules for designing, designing and installing the local gas pipeline.
The content of the article:
- How it works
- What you need to know about LPG
- What are gas holders
- Features of balloon gas supply
- Design and execution of documentation
- Installation of autonomous gas pipeline
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
How it works
A gas stove connected to a liquefied gas cylinder is not uncommon. By the same principle, it is possible to bring the blue fuel to the gas boiler in order to provide the whole house with heating and hot water supply. Only need more capacity or even a few tanks with liquefied gas.
The fuel in such systems is an analogue of natural gas, which consists of a mixture of butane and propane. This mixture is called LPG - liquefied petroleum gas.
To organize a system of autonomous or alternative gas supply at home, it is necessary to combine the following elements into a single system:
- LPG storage tank - one or several;
- evaporator (pressure regulator) for gas;
- gas pipes;
- system controls;
- appliances that operate on liquefied gas: stove, column, boiler, etc.
Special gas devices for autonomous gas supply of a country house are not needed. If the boiler or column can operate from the main gas network, then the cylinder or gas-holder can be connected to it. It is very convenient if in the future you plan to bring a centralized gas pipeline to the house, you do not have to change the equipment.
Autonomous gas supply of a private house is usually carried out with the help of a special tank - a gas-holder, from which liquefied gas is distributed through pipes (+)
The main reason why private home owners refuse electric and solid fuel heating boilers The advantage of gas units is relatively low operating costs.
Gas, including liquefied gas, is cheaper than electricity or coal. The difference even covers the cost of installing an autonomous gas supply system.
Another advantage LPG boilers - high degree of automation equipment. If the operation of gas consuming appliances is configured correctly, they will be turned on and off automatically, heating the heat carrier and / or hot water to the set temperature.
It is convenient, and also allows to optimize a gas consumption. If all safety measures are observed, liquefied gas can be stored for a very long time, taking only the required amount. You can fill the gas tank or cylinders only once or twice a year.
What you need to know about LPG
Both propane and butane in a liquefied state occupy a very small space, therefore, LPG is so convenient to use for autonomous gas supply. As soon as the tank valve opens, the pressure inside decreases.
Part of the gas goes from liquid to gaseous form, and then collects in the upper part of the cylinder. The gas pipe moves the fuel to the appliance that consumes gas.
The process continues uninterruptedly, which largely automates the operations associated with the operation of an alternative gas system. When the cylinder valve overlap, the pressure is stabilized, and the transition of gas from a liquid to a gaseous state stops.
Any flammable substance must be handled with care, and LPG is no exception. The volume of filling the tank with liquefied gas should be no more than 85%. This allows you to leave some space so that the fuel can be released when the tank is heated, and at the same time the pressure inside the cylinder does not reach a critical level.
Propane expands faster when heated, and butane more slowly. The ratio of these components in cylinders vary, so some cylinders can be used in winter, and others - only in summer.
In summer, the ambient air temperature can rise significantly, gas cylinders naturally heat up, and the gas inside expands. This point should be considered when planning alternative gas supply.
Cylinders intended for use in the summer should not be used in the winter, but for other reasons. Low temperatures prevent an increase in pressure in the cylinder, and in the “summer” version this capacity of the mixture is already reduced. If you choose the wrong container, its work will be ineffective.
In order to use the same container with liquefied gas at any time of the year, it is necessary to ensure a stable temperature environment for it. This can be achieved by placing the container in the ground. Immersion should be deep enough - below the level of freezing.
What are gas holders
Gas tanks are called special tanks for storing liquefied gas. Tanks of variable volume are widely used in industry, but in everyday life only gas tanks of constant volume should be used. This is due to security requirements. The working gas pressure in the gas tank should be 16 atmospheres.
Gas-holder is a device for storage of liquefied gas, its specific characteristics for each house are determined in accordance with the technical conditions of the object (+)
Such a reservoir looks like a cylinder, although sometimes there are also spherical models. The volume can vary in a very wide framework - up to fifty thousand cubic meters, although such large volumes are not needed for a private house. There are gas holders for installation underground, but there are also ground models.
The choice depends on the nature of the use of gas. For the summer cottage, which is not used in the winter period, a gasholder of land use will be suitable. Can be used mobile gas tank.
But if people live in a house or cottage all year round, you should definitely install an underground installation tank.
Gas tanks designed to be installed underground are more in demand than ground models, since they provide a stable temperature for storing liquefied gas.
Although it is easier to install a ground-based gas-holder, there are more problems with its operation. Due to the influence of high and unstable temperatures, more stringent safety requirements are imposed on such devices. The cost of ground installations is also usually higher than for underground counterparts.
If it becomes necessary to use a terrestrial model in winter, i.e. at lower temperatures, you will need to use an evaporator. This is an electrical device that provides safe heating of the gas tank.
As a result, LPG enters the gaseous state faster and enters the system, providing sufficient pressure.
Underground gas tanks can reach volumes of 50 cubic meters, but for a private house you usually need a smaller capacity
Gas tanks designed for underground installation are considered more reliable and safe. However, their installation will require more time, cost and effort.
This is due to large-scale work. Installation above the soil freezing is not allowed, and in many regions this figure is 1.5 m and even more.
The contents of the tank, located inside the soil, is almost completely at a temperature of 5-8 ° C. Special evaporator for this model is not needed.
For a specific site and project, the gas tank is selected in accordance with the specifications developed for the autonomous gas supply system. Usually, the organization entrusted with the execution of the project itself is engaged in the purchase of this device, using discounts offered by manufacturers to such customers.
Gas tank control system is installed on its top cover. The pressure gauge allows you to control the pressure inside the tank, which should not exceed the critical limits (+)
Independent searches and purchase of a gasholder usually do not give the site owner an opportunity to save money, but increase the risk of purchasing a poor-quality or inappropriate device.
On our site there is a series of articles devoted to the selection and installation of gas holders.
We advise you to read:
- Varieties of gas-holders: classification basics + review of popular brands
- Turnkey gas-holder: how to install the gas tank and install the equipment
- The cost of installing a gas tank in a private house: the price of gasification works
In addition to gas-holders for autonomous gas supply, you can also use liquefied gas cylinders. One such capacity is usually not enough, several are united into a common network.
Features of balloon gas supply
This option is usually used only for small summer cottages with modest amounts of gas consumption. Some gas bottles set in a separate room. It is not recommended to allocate for this purpose a room in a residential building.
It is better to build a separate storage room for the storage of cylinders, although it is allowed for this room to be adjacent to the house.
A set of gearboxes and pressure gauges is used to connect gas cylinders into a single network. As required, empty cylinders can be replaced with filled ones.
Here you should make a separate entrance, not a door leading from the house. The area of the room must exceed the size of the cylinders that will be installed there, eight times.
The inner surface of the room must be covered with materials that are resistant to fire. Be sure to have forced ventilation.
Autonomous gas supply using a set of gas cylinders is preferable to use for a small summer cottage so that you do not have to worry too often about filling them (+)
Sometimes storage of cylinders is allowed not in a separate room, but in a large metal box outside the house. It is impossible to heat the storage of gas cylinders, any heating devices and, of course, the use of open fire are prohibited.
If the room is ready, you must perform the following operations:
- Install cylinders along one of the walls.
- To lay gas pipes from the storage of cylinders to devices-consumers of liquefied gas.
- Build the system from reducers and manometers for parallel connection of cylinders.
- Connect cylinders and devices to the highway.
- Check the finished system in the presence of employees of the regional gas industry.
- Get official permits documents for the operation of the balloon gas system.
The cylinders are installed on special pallets, while they need to be given a strictly vertical position. Each tank contains about 50 liters of gas, based on this standard, calculate their total amount. Such a system will be cheaper than a full-fledged gas supply with a gas tank, but it will be necessary to charge the cylinders quite often.
Design and execution of documentation
The “personal” gas system must be as secure and reliable as the centralized gas pipeline. Carelessness in these matters is unacceptable, since even a small gas leak can cause enormous problems and even lead to death.
If the owner of the house does not have special knowledge, then gas pipeline design should be entrusted to a specialist with a license.
The installation site of the above-ground or underground gas-holder is determined not only by convenience, but also by the distance for individual objects on the site (+)
Rather, this is done by entire design organizations that have the right to design and carry out gasification of residential properties.
It can be either a private company or a specialized subdivision of the gas service of the district, region, etc. Private traders take a little more for work than government experts, but they will also deal with design.
When working with regional gas, the owner of the house will have to deal with the design independently, but you can save a little.
When drafting a project, you will have to not only make a couple of applications, but also attach a number of documents to them:
- passport holder;
- certificate of title to land;
- plot plan;
- characteristics of the heating system, etc.
First, specialists develop technical conditions for the gasification of the building, which take into account the requirements of fire safety. Then studies are conducted on the ground, and is selected place to install the gas tank subject to regulations.
The gas tank should be at a distance:
- not less than 10 m from residential buildings;
- not less than 15 m from sources of drinking water and other bodies of water;
- not less than 5 m from trees and outbuildings;
- not less than 2 m from fences.
In addition, it is necessary to take into account the presence of power lines near the installation site of the gas-holder. The minimum distance to such structures should be half the height of the support. Another important point is the availability of convenient access roads for a car with a tank of liquefied gas to fill the gas tank.
At the design stage, features of the site are also evaluated: soil corrosiveness, level of stray currents, etc.
Based on these data, a decision will be made about the features of the gas tank, for example, whether it needs additional galvanic protection, which will affect the price of the device not for the better.
Ground-based models of gas-holders are usually used only in summer. To such containers impose higher security requirements than for underground counterparts
Thus, the technical conditions for the gasification of the object are determined. With their help, experts will draft a project that includes a number of documents: the characteristics of a gas-holder, an evaporator, condenser, site plan, gas pipeline system plan, recommendations for grounding, chemical protection, lightning protection and etc.
These documents must be coordinated with the fire inspectorate, gas supply services, electricians, architects, environmentalists, and other specialists of local units. The result of registration will be obtaining a building permit.
Installation of autonomous gas pipeline
If the site owner wants to reduce the cost of installing an autonomous gas pipeline, he can independently dig a pit for a gas-holder. But this must be done in strict accordance with the project. It is better to entrust all other works to specialists so that everything is done in full compliance with safety requirements.
When installing an autonomous gas system, an external pipe gasket should be used, only permanent connections are used to connect individual sections
All gas pipes should be laid only openly, they should not be hidden under a screed, false panels or other decorative elements. Carefully consider a plan for distributing pipes for liquefied gas.
It is not allowed to carry out such communications in transit through residential premises, through the kitchen or other outbuildings in which devices are already installed (or will be installed) that work for liquefied gas.
The base for the gas tank must be smooth and durable; a sand cushion is arranged for it, on which a concrete slab of suitable dimensions is placed.
Another categorical ban associated with the installation of gas pipes - plug connectors. Of course, connectors are needed at the beginning of the network, i.e. where the network is connected to cylinders or gas tank. And finally, when connecting the pipe to the boiler or column, you also need to put a connector.
But on the entire length of the autonomous gas pipeline, connections need only be made one-piece. About that part of the pipeline, which is laid outside, you need to take care extra.
The entire outdoor network should be carefully insulated using special materials that are resistant to fire. In addition, it is necessary to ensure the removal of condensate, it will reduce the likelihood of corrosion of pipes.
To reduce the cost of installing an autonomous gas pipeline, you can dig up the pit for an underground gas tank yourself, but you should definitely follow the project documentation.
Gas boiler must be installed in a separate room - you will need boiler room arrangement. Its area should be at least 15 cubic meters. m. In the room you need to make a window, the opening area of which is at least half a cubic meter.
Such an opening in the outer wall will create an outlet for a blast wave in the event of an accident. If the gas explodes in a room with blank walls, the whole building can be seriously damaged.
At the entrance to the boiler room should put the door that opens out. Another thing that should not be neglected is the ventilation of the boiler room. The flow of fresh air must be constant to ensure the combustion of gas.
It is necessary to ensure sufficiently good air exchange so that the gas does not concentrate in a room with open fire in case of accidental leakage.
The gas boiler should be installed in a separate room with a window and a door that opens to the outside. Finishing is done with fire resistant materials.
Ventilation will also prevent burning with poisoning if problems arise with the chimney. If it is not possible to allocate a separate room for the boiler, some models may be installed in the basement or on the basement floor.
But in this case it is necessary to install a system in the room with a boiler to control the level of hazardous gases in the air.
Installation work on autonomous gasification with a gas-holder usually takes two or three days. But after they are completed, another number of documents should be drawn up and some approvals should be made. Testing of the finished system for tightness should be carried out under the supervision of specialists from the regional gas organization and Rostechnadzor.
Before backfilling the underground gasholder with sand, it is necessary to wait about two to three weeks after its installation.
After checking, the gas tank is filled with sand, after which it is necessary to wait about three weeks before the first filling of the tank with liquefied gas. Completion of work must be formalized by an official act of acceptance. At the same time usually enter into a service contract.
Sometimes it is more convenient to invite different contractors for installation of external and internal gas pipelines. In this case, experts recommend to delineate the responsibility between the performers and to issue this moment in a separate act. It does not hurt also to take care of liability insurance.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
You can see the details of the installation of the gas-holder in this video:
Here is the order of work in the autonomous gasification of a private house:
The device's own gas supply system on the site is a troublesome and costly task. However, it is very convenient to use your own gas, you can only refuel a couple of times a year.
In addition, such a system is cheaper than endless energy bills, and solid or liquid fuel loses to the gas boiler economically.
Thinking over the arrangement of autonomous gasification? Or have you already installed a gas tank on a country site? Please share with readers your experience in operating such an installation, tell us how justified the financial costs are. You can leave comments in the block below.