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The incubation period is a responsible time, you need to monitor the temperature and humidity daily, and also to ventilate and turn eggs in a timely manner. Beginners are frightened by this responsibility, so we present a set of rules that describe the withdrawal of chickens in an incubator at home. We draw your attention to the fact that all recommendations are obligatory for implementation, otherwise a part of the chicks will die in the embryo.
Selection of eggs
Success in business depends not only on the efforts of the owner, but also on the quality of the eggs. Therefore, before correctly removing the chicks in the incubator, pay attention to their selection. It is interesting that the process of breeding chickens should begin with the chicken. Indeed, you need to make sure that she is not ill and has no genetic diseases. Otherwise, the genetics of the chicks will also be disrupted. Next, pay attention to eggs, quality indicators are as follows:
- without a smell, possible deviations - moldy, caustic, grape, putrefactive and other smells;
- freshness - with a shelf life of no more than 5-7 days;
- correct storage - at a temperature of at least 10-12 ° C, who have been in the refrigerator, are subject to disposal;
- optimal shape - for chicken eggs it is slightly narrowed on the one hand oval shape, without growths, depressions. Spherical or excessively elongated are also subject to marriage;
- without damage - carefully check the shell for cracks and dents, dirty stained stains are allowed only in small amounts;
- optimal weight (50-60 g) - of the small often there are weak chicks, and large ones are with two yolks.
The egg shell is porous, so that air penetrates through it, and also has its own microflora. It is strictly forbidden to wash or wipe eggs.
When checking eggs, it is mandatory that they be inspected by a special device - an ovoscope. When translucent, pay attention to the differences in the shades of content. You need to find a yolk and an air chamber. The yolk should be in the center or slightly closer to the blunt end. You can not take an egg in which the yolk is adjacent to the inside of the shell. The air chamber must be at the blunt end. Normal for her volume - with a teaspoon. Egg with a small air chamber is not suitable.
When selecting and also during the withdrawal of chickens in an incubator at home, it is necessary to inspect the contents and dispose of eggs with pathologies of development. Before you remove the chicks in the incubator, remember the possible disturbances in the maturation of the embryo.
Usually appear under the shell shell, are caused by various bacteria. The spots can have different shades and sizes.
A variety of defeat by putrefactive bacteria, in which the protein liquefies and becomes greenish. The egg is opaque.
With this pathology, the yolk floats up and dries to the inside of the shell. Egg can have a sharp smell.
At the same time, blood inclusions are present on the surface of the yolk or in the protein.
When oligoscopy, the contents look monotonous with a rusty hue. Yolk and an air chamber are not visible.
Pathology develops after damage to the shell of the shell during storage for more than one day.
In any of these pathologies, the egg is to be disposed of, frying or cooking them for ingestion is not allowed.
The incubation period
From the moment the eggs are laid, incubation begins. The incubation period ends after the last chick is shed. The excretion of chicks in the incubator differs from the breeding of goslings by the periods of incubation, the maintenance of temperature and humidity.
Loading eggs into the incubator
Before you leave the eggs in the incubator at home, prepare them and the incubator camera. The internal chamber of the device is thoroughly disinfected and ventilated. While preparing the incubator for the withdrawal of chickens at home, it is best to leave the eggs at room temperature for 8 hours, so that they warm up gradually and evenly. Blunt and sharp end, it is desirable to mark with a pencil a cross or a toe. This will help in controlling the overturning of the masonry.
Control of incubation conditions
The temperature and humidity in the incubator for chicken eggs should be monitored every hour. Even a slight change (-1 ° C) will slow the growth or death of embryos. After loading eggs, the temperature should rise to 37 ° C in 3-4 hours. During the entire incubation period, the temperature and humidity will change several times.
Maturation of embryos is divided into 4 stages, briefly they are given in the table of incubation of chicken eggs in an incubator.
1 stage - from 1 to 7 days. The heart, the circulatory system and the beginnings of the internal organs are formed. During this period, ventilation is not required, but by the end the embryo already needs oxygen. The most optimal temperature is 3, ° C. Humidity is maintained around 55%. Eggs need to be turned every 6 hours, that is 4 times a day. At the same time it is not recommended to open the incubator.
The incubator is better equipped with a tray with automatic turning of eggs.
Stage 2 - from 8 to 14 days. During this time, the embryo forms a skeleton and a beak. The temperature is the same as in the previous period, but the humidity is reduced in stages over 3-4 days to 45%. Change the position of eggs should be every 4 hours - 6 times a day. Also, it is required to air the eggs for oxygen supply, it should be done 2 times a day for 5 minutes.
Stage 3 - from 15 to 18 days.Turn the eggs should also be 6 times a day, while the ventilation is increased to 15-20 minutes, too, 2 times a day. Humidity is increased to 50%, the temperature is made the same. At the end of the period, with successful breeding, the chicks begin to emit hardly audible sounds and turn over in the egg.
Stage 4 - from 19 to 21 days.First stop turning the eggs, the chickens are strong enough and do it yourself. Reduce the ventilation time to 5 minutes twice a day. Humidity is increased to 65%, the temperature is reduced to 3 ° C. At the end of this period, chicks hatch in the incubator.
If you follow all the rules listed above and track the operation of the instruments, then the brood will turn out to be numerous. Of the small eggs, the chicks are selected first. After hatching the chicks are allowed to dry out, gain strength, after which the chickens from the incubator move under the hen or heater. Conditions in it for chicks do not fit. After hatching all the chicks, the incubator is cleaned and disinfected.
Control and probable complications
Even the most high-quality incubators and responsible owners are not immune from emergencies. To protect yourself and the eggs from power outages, get incubators with a spare power source. When overheating the offspring, you need to open the incubator for a while and cool the eggs. When supercooling, you can put the camera on for 2-3 hours with hot water bottles. Minor fluctuations in temperature and humidity will not kill the young, but all these procedures must be carried out immediately.
Of course, one must observe the schedule of courtship for eggs, and also watch closely how many days the chickens are hatched in the incubator. Crosses and toes on eggs should help orient oneself in turning the eggs.
It is also necessary to control the development of chickens with the help of oligoscopy. All defective eggs must be disposed of immediately. Translucency is recommended for 6 and 11 days. On the sixth day should be visible blood vessels and heart. On the eleventh day the egg from the acute side should darken.