The principle of operation of air humidifiers of different types

The principle of operation of air humidifiers of different types


The main function of the air humidifier is to evaporate the moisture in the surrounding space. Some instruments can also clean, cool or heat the air, but in this case they are already converted into certain climatic stations. Let's find out how a simple construction humidifier works.


  • 1Traditional evaporation
  • 2Ultrasound
  • 3Hot steam
  • 4Multifunctional devices
    • 4.1Video: Types of Air Humidifiers

Traditional evaporation

The most common air humidifier is designed simply. Even a child can understand his design.

  • Provided sponge, impregnated with water. It is also called a wet filter or cartridge.
  • The fan of the humidifier drives dry air through the sponge.
  • The air is saturated with moisture and it becomes more comfortable in the room.

A big plus of such a device is in its simplicity, therefore, price. If we compare the traditional device with other air humidifiers, then its main drawback will be revealed - the lack of accuracy. It is allowed only to increase or decrease the intensity of evaporation, and more precise control is impossible.

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To know how long the humidifier should be turned on, you need to purchase a device (psychrometer) showing how much relative humidity you have in the house. The same psychrometer can be made by hand from dry and wet thermometers.


The next most popular is the ultrasonic humidifier, used not only in residential premises, but also in production, in greenhouses, public offices, various storages, etc. With its help you can accurately maintain the humidity even at high values ​​(of the order of 80%). A modern ultrasonic humidifier is easy to operate and virtually no noise, which allows you to install it in a room for rest or sleep. Its main parts are:

  • Capacity in which water is poured.
  • A cartridge that cleans water.
  • A low-power fan that pushes the air inside the device.
  • A piezoelectric membrane that breaks water into tiny particles.
  • Nozzle through which spraying takes place.

The principle of operation is that when an alternating electrical signal is applied to the piezoelectric element, it starts to vibrate at a high frequency. The water around is broken up into many small particles. Forms a water mist that spreads in space under the influence of a built-in fan.


Any ultrasonic humidifier requires the use of purified water. Otherwise, all the objects near the device will be covered with a white layer of plaque. It will be very difficult to wash such a scum.


A modern ultrasonic humidifier is equipped with a touch screen control panel, can independently control the humidity, and knows how much to work, and when to turn off. The ultrasonic device is safe, economically consumes electricity, is an excellent alternative to classic evaporators.

Hot steam

If the water is heated, evaporation will occur more intensively. By this principle, the steam humidifier works. At the bottom of the device is an insulated chamber with a heating element. It is in it and the water is heated, after which the steam rises and spreads through the room.

In many models at the top there are baths for aromatic oil. Thus, the steam generator can work as an inhaler. It is important that the heater is completely in the water, therefore, a water level sensor is provided in the steam humidifiers.

Devices, moisturizing hot steam, quite inexpensive are, and this has gained popularity. The degree of humidification of air can be controlled if the instrument is equipped with a hygrostat.

The drawbacks include large power consumption and the inability to accurately regulate humidity. In addition, the humidifier heats the air in the room, which is not always good.


Multifunctional devices

Such devices not only moisturize the air. They are able to purify it from harmful foreign impurities, and also to ionize. This allows you to make the atmosphere in the room as pleasant and useful as possible for living. There are models in which you can program how much the humidifier should work.

Usually, climatic complexes are equipped with several filters. Sometimes they insert silver rods that help fight harmful microbes. An example of a multifunctional humidifier is air washing.

In it, the air entering the device passes through the disk systems. The discs rotate in the water, so they humidify the air and take dust particles from it. Removable filters in the sink is not provided, which adds to its benefits. Gaseous impurities such washing can not be eliminated.

Video: Types of Air Humidifiers

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