Principle of operation and arrangement of modern refrigerators

Principle of operation and arrangement of modern refrigerators


If you do not want small faults or even serious breakdowns of household appliances to catch you unawares, you need to carefully study the principle of the refrigerator. Nowadays there are several technologies in which refrigerators operate, but in general the principle is quite similar. Visiting the base unit of the refrigerator and the principle of its operation, you can independently determine the cause of the failure, and even in some cases, you will be able to fix the problem.

So, how does the refrigerator work? The principle of the modern refrigerator is based on a substance such as freon, which is able to quickly change its state and cool the products due to its outstanding qualities.

In modern production only safe and environmentally friendly refrigerants are used, which are guaranteed not to harm your health and the health of your loved ones.

Freon moves through the system thanks to the compressor, and evaporates as follows:

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  1. The rear of the refrigerator generates high blood pressure;
  2. The evaporator generates a reduced pressure;
  3. On the rear panel refrigerants become more liquefied, and on the evaporator on the contrary - they begin to evaporate;
  4. The cold temperature is pumped.

The pressure is increased due to a special capillary tube, which is in addition to the tubes with refrigerant. This is the basic principle of the operation of a standard fridge with freon.


  • 1Compressor
  • 2Single-chamber and two-chamber
  • 3Crying Evaporator
  • 4No Frost


The main part, thanks to which the fridge functions, is a compressor. It can be called a kind of engine of the refrigerator, which ensures the operation of the refrigerator. The main feature of modern compressors is inverter control, thanks to which the device can continuously operate for more than a decade. In addition to impressive longevity, thanks to this approach it was possible to achieve a low noise level.

In order for the refrigerator to function effectively, a starter relay is required. The fact is that the compressor differs from the non-synchronous principle of operation. The starter relay is responsible for activating the starting coil, but only at the time of starting. Thanks to this approach, the compressor is effectively protected from overheating - once the metal element inside the housing is heated to a certain temperature, the system is shut down.


Single-chamber and two-chamber

Once you understand the compressor device and the role of freon in the operation of the refrigerator, you can go directly to the refrigerator. In single-chamber and dual-chamber products, the device and principle of operation are somewhat different.

The single-chamber refrigerator cools the air due to Freon vapor, which comes from above, from the freezer compartment, down to the refrigerating compartment. First, the vapors enter the condenser due to the operation of the compressor, and then go into liquid state and through the filter and the capillary tube enter the evaporator reservoir. There freon boils, and then cools the refrigerating cabinet.


The cooling process takes place in a cyclic order, and moves until the temperature reaches the proper level. Then the compressor turns off.

In most single-chamber units, the temperature in the refrigerator cabinet is controlled by simple manipulations with special windows. Under the freezer compartment there is a special panel with windows that let in cold air - the wider they are open, the colder in the chamber. Very simple, yet reliable and efficient device.

The two-compartment refrigerator works a little differently. The device of such a system provides for two evaporators, one for each chamber. First freon in liquid state is pumped through the capillary tube and the condenser into the freezer evaporator, and begins to pump cold air there.


Only after the freezer gets cold enough, freon enters the second evaporator and cools the air in the refrigerating compartment. After the desired temperature has been reached, the compressor turns off. As you can see, the cooling system device is quite simple, and that is why frequent breakdowns are excluded (with proper operation).

Crying Evaporator

The given name was fixed not only in the people, but also became the official term in the world of manufacture of home appliances. The evaporator itself looks like a small metal plate, or a kind of shelf, located on the back of the refrigerator.


This part is one of the most important elements due to which it is possible to achieve a low temperature.

Once in the evaporator, Freon begins to boil and cool its refrigerator compartment with its vapors. When the desired temperature is reached (usually 4-5 degrees Celsius), the compressor turns off and the element itself starts to thaw. Accordingly, condensate begins to appear on it, hence the "talking" name.

No Frost

The No Frost system refrigerator operates in a different way, without the usual crying evaporator for conventional refrigerators. The device of the system is as follows:

  1. The evaporator is located only in the area of ​​the freezer compartment, even if it is a question of two-chamber samples. The evaporator itself is more like a radiator.
  2. In the above-described system, air is cooled through the evaporator;
  3. And then spreads through all the compartments of the refrigerator thanks to the built-in fan.

Such a device allows to avoid freezing, and the refrigerator is not covered with a layer of ice and frost, as in standard apparatus. No Frost system refrigerator is the most modern model in this industry, and is rapidly gaining popularity due to its qualities.


Otherwise, the principle of operation is not too different - after the temperature in the chambers has reached the norm, the compressor turns off and then is activated again thanks to the internal control elements.

Each of the modern technologies has its own advantages and has the right to life, and everyone has the right to choose their own appliances according to their own preferences. But only after studying all the features of its device, you will be able to use the technique most effectively.

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