Compressor units of a modern refrigerator
Despite the fact that today there are a lot of models of refrigerators, they all have a monotonous structure and are endowed with similar functionality. The lion's share of the work is done by the compressor: compresses and moves refrigerant (freon) vapor to condenser, where they turn into a liquid, and then - in the evaporator - this liquid boils and becomes a gas.
In this way, the surrounding space is cooled, and this cycle never stops and does not stop while power is being supplied. Let's take a closer look at the formation of cold, figuring out the compressor device of modern refrigerators.
- 1Types of equipment
- 2Dynamic constructions
- 3Volumetric piston structures
- 4Volumetric rotational constructions
- 5Advantages of rotor screw structures above piston
- 6The principle of the modern compressor on video
Types of equipment
Although today the market offers many different models of refrigeration equipment, their design is quite similar. Below is a complete classification of the possible device compressors of modern refrigerators.
Dynamic designs are centrifugal and axial compressors.
Volumetric designs consist of compressors also of two types: piston (progressive and with crankshaft) and rotary (single-rotor and twin-rotor).
If the two-rotor is simple, then the homogeneous are divided into these types:
- with a rolling motor;
- rotary-piston or trochoid.
Despite the variety of types of equipment, the compressor of a modern refrigerator most often uses the piston or axial principle of operation.
Here, the main work is done by the fan and its blades. In one case, pressure is created, which is directed to the right side. In the second, the principle of centrifugal force is involved, due to which the bodies tend to leave their orbit, moving not in a circle, but in a straight line.
The device of dynamic compressors of refrigerators has in fact only one drawback: they are not able to produce compression ratios of large dimensions.But their undeniable advantage is the simplicity, reliability and durability of the structure.
Volumetric piston structures
In this case, the compressor device of a modern refrigerator is based on the principles that are applied in single-cylinder internal combustion engines. In one variant, the crankshaft is used, and it is driven by a nearby electric motor.
But if the formation of pulses is carried out on an inverter circuit, the rod with the piston is located in the middle of the coil wound around the wire.Electric current causes this system to produce translational movements, due to which the functioning of refrigeration equipment is carried out.
The arrangement of reciprocating compressors of refrigerators using the principle of the non-directional arrangement of the pistons is widely used in our time, since it has no significant drawbacks. This is beneficial both for producers of such products and for its consumers.
Volumetric rotational constructions
The arrangement of compressors of modern refrigerators is often based on the use of a two-rotor principle. There are unequal helical spiral blades, the leading rotor has several protrusions with rounded peaks, and both shafts are located in a compound cylindrical body. The structure is arranged so that they touch the entire length, and the rotation is carried out towards each other.
The holes for the intake and withdrawal of freon are located on opposite sides - diagonally.Refrigerant comes at the beginning of the location of the rotors on top of the body, and the compressed gas leaves from below - at the end of the spirals.
The device of volumetric rotary compressors of the refrigerator is made so that there is no gap between the rotor spirals and the body. In this case, during rotation, the air portions formed by the intake chamber diverge in opposite directions, which leads to their easy grip by both shafts.
The design feature is that one rotor has 50% more load than the second one: 4 against 6 air portions. Rotation of the blades eventually leads to compression (impact pressure) of the coolant and its release outside. To reach the same indicators in other cases is problematic.
Another important factor that increases the popularity of rotational technology is the high efficiency of the process. Since the cavities of the rotors are adjacent to each other tightly, and the oil between the shafts reduces the frictional force, a cork is created between the body and the spirals due to the surface tension.
After these conditions are fulfilled, controlling the pressure inside the system becomes quite easy, and, therefore, it is possible to reduce the rotational speed of the blades and reduce the power consumption. In addition, in such a situation it will not be difficult to lower the technological requirements for the quality of manufacturing of individual parts and assembly as a whole.
Advantages of rotor screw structures above piston
The screw rotor device has two screw rotors, one of which is connected to the motor. The scope of such units is quite wide due to high reliability, economy and undemanding to the materials of manufacture.
So, the strengths of rotary screw designs:
- The constant speed with which the shafts rotate, regardless of the current pressure, results in stable operation under any conditions;
- the required compression ratio is achieved by using certain parts and proper build quality;
- design features make screw rotary compressors durable;
- It is possible to reduce or increase the productivity at any time due to changes in the speed of rotation of the rotors;
- low level of vibration;
- low noise operation;
- compact size of the device.
In fairness, it should be noted and the drawback inherent in screw rotary compressors: a relatively low efficiency, if freon will move from one state to another inside the hull. The problem is easily solved by increasing the power, although at the same time the power consumption also increases.
The principle of the modern compressor on video
Since almost every type of refrigerator compressor has its own design features, it is impossible to determine the winner simultaneously in all parameters. It is necessary to know the conditions in which the equipment will operate, and to correlate the benefits of the obtained functionality with the costs of using the selected process..