The range of pipes for communications devices is extensive. Manufactured products are significantly different in their characteristics: material, flexibility, strength, durability. It is often difficult for the user to determine which pipe to choose for the water supply of a house or apartment.
The type of pipeline and the medium to be transported, the number of sanitary points in the network - all these are factors that pull the scales of the scale in favor of choosing one or another type.
In our material we will try to deal with the subtleties of choice, and also we will tell about how to determine the optimal diameter of the pipeline.
The content of the article:
- Pipe selection based on operating conditions
- How to determine the required pipe size?
Characteristics of pipes of various materials
- Option # 1 - steel pipes
- Option # 2 - copper pipes
- Option # 3 - plastic pipes
- Option # 4 - metal pipes
- Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Pipe selection based on operating conditions
TO domestic water supply This includes the piping system (wiring), which transports water to plumbing and equipment. Pipes and fittings made of polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene, polybutylene, metal polymers can not be used for all networks. Each of them has its own operating conditions and they can vary greatly.
No restrictions may be used. copper pipes, brass, bronze - for high pressure systems, for transportation of drinking and technical, cold and hot water. Steel products with external and internal corrosion-resistant coating can also be used for any purpose.
To avoid possible damage, plastic pipes are hidden in baseboards, ducts constructed from GVL ducts. They must not be located near sources of open flame and in places exposed to direct sunlight.
For each type of pipes and their size, the value of the maximum pressure in the network, which they are able to withstand, is determined. It is better that it be higher than the maximum possible pressure in the water supply network.
For example, in a house with centralized water supply water pressure can vary between 2.5-7.5 bar at a rate of 4 bar. In this case, the peak indicators can sometimes reach 10 bar, and the system testing is carried out at values of 12 bar. To prevent the pipeline from bursting, when selecting pipes, a "margin of safety" is foreseen, with a reference to maximum values.
Choosing pipes for the construction of external underground systems, pay attention to the rate of ring stiffness. For ductless laying of the polymer pipeline in the ground, in which it is possible damage, use products with a protective coating.
One of the determining factors is the operating conditions:
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Water supply systems for private homes include interior and exterior. Naturally, for their construction need pipes with the appropriate technical characteristics
External branches of water supply systems, regardless of whether they are connected to a central network or to an autonomous source, are laid mainly in the ground. Pipes must withstand ground pressure. When laying above the seasonal freezing level, the external water supply lines should be insulated.
Input of water supply can be timed to the basement or to the basement of the house. All areas located in rooms with temperatures below + 2º C must be insulated or supplied with heating cable.
The pipeline of the water supply system inside the house is assembled from pipes capable of operating reliably at a temperature of + 2º C and above.
In the case of laying pipes with cold and heated water, they are provided with thermal insulation next to them in order to prevent condensation on cold pipes.
The choice is influenced by the method of laying: open or closed. The contours in wooden houses, as well as metal piping in all buildings, without exception, are laid according to the open pattern
If concealed laying is planned in foam concrete or brick walls, it is allowed to use only polymeric pipes PP or PVC
Polymer products also predominate in the summer summer water supply system. When laying over the ground, HDPE pipes are used that do not react to UV, while PVC is used for trenching
Water Control Point
Connecting the outdoor branch to the central network
Entering the system in the basement of a private house
The device of the internal part of the water supply
Thermal insulation of pipes with hot and cold water
Open water pipe laying
Hidden arrangement of water pipes
Summer water supply in the summer cottage
How to determine the required pipe size?
For convenient determination of the diameter of pipes and fittings, binding them to all elements of the system, use the value of the internal diameter (Dy- conditional passage of pipes). Oriented to the typical dimensions of steel pipes - they are made with Dy - 15 mm, 20 m, 32 mm.
Length supplied steel pipes it can be different, mainly it is length from 4 to 12 m. Metal-plastic pipes can have a diameter (Dy) 16-30 mm and a wall thickness of 2-2.5 mm.
Metal-plastic and plastic pipes are supplied to wholesale and retail trade networks in coils or sections. The total length of the products should be with a margin of 2–5% more than provided for in the project (unless this stock was originally incorporated into it)
The choice of the diameter of the future pipeline depends on such factors:
- Water pressure in the network. The lower it is, the larger the diameter should be. A thin pipe with insufficient pressure will give only a thin stream of water.
- Pipeline lengths The greater its length, the lower the pressure in the network and, accordingly, it is necessary to apply a larger diameter.
- The number of turns and joints. Each such element reduces pressure. Choosing pipes with a large diameter, it is possible to increase the flow of water into the house.
These factors are related to the properties of the pipeline itself. In addition, they take into account the water temperature, the parameters of pumping equipment and much more.
For the exact calculation of the diameter, there are special formulas, but the general rule with the purchase is not to decline your choice in favor of saving by reducing the diameter of the pipe.
In a narrow pipeline, more hydraulic losses occur, which will have to be compensated for more powerful pump and a large amount of electricity required for its operation, and these are additional costs.
With installation of the pipeline in the apartment most often there is no need for calculations - there is already a wiring at the entrance. Its dimensions are known, they are designed for the desired water flow. Usually, before entering the apartment, the common pipeline is mounted from pipes, Dywhich is equal to 20—32 mm, for flat use use pipes with Dy 15-20 mm.
The diameter of polymer pipes can be different for different types. But since the input of the pipeline to the apartment, as a rule, is made of steel, during the production of polymeric products manufacturers often focus on the possibility of connecting them to pipes with standard values
Characteristics of pipes of various materials
When choosing pipes for water supply from a specific material, physicomechanical characteristics, and also service conditions - the maximum indicators of temperature, working pressure, terms of operation. All parameters are prescribed in regulatory acts and must meet state standards.
Option # 1 - steel pipes
The main thing for which the metal pipe is valued is its strength, resistance to high temperatures, excess pressure in the network and external mechanical damaging effects.
But the few shortcomings of such products sometimes strike them out of the list of products available and convenient for installation.
The main advantage of metal pipes is their strength, durability and a huge scope.
First, it is low corrosion resistance, if it is not copper or brass pipes, significantly reduces the service life, deteriorates the quality indicators of the water supply system as a whole.
Secondly, a lot of weight, which creates additional difficulties during installation. And, thirdly, the problems arising from the connection of various parts of the water supply system - the need for threading and the inaccessibility of shaped products from expensive metals.
Products are used for the installation of external and internal water supply networks, hot and cold lines. Can be galvanized and not galvanized. The first serve a little longer and less clogged. But over time, and they lose the protective layer and also as not galvanized begin to rust. On average, steel pipelines serve about 40 years.
Steel pipes are produced with different wall thickness, according to these parameters they are divided into light, ordinary, reinforced. The thicker the wall, the longer the product serves and vice versa. Reinforced pipes are harder to cut, they require great bending forces.
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Steel pipes are universal, used in the assembly of lines for hot and cold water. Sizes are unified
Replaced by outdated welding came press-fitting connections. Now steel pipelines are assembled using the above connectors and a pressing tool, manual for pipes Ø 16-26 mm, electrical for large diameters
Despite the use of all types of protection against the formation of rust, steel pipe is difficult to completely protect against this negative phenomenon.
Connect the metal pipe directly to the plastic is prohibited. Their connection is possible only with the use of transitional fittings or transitional fittings.
Universal pipes for cold and hot branches
Steel Water Pipe Connections
Susceptibility of steel systems to rusting
Use of fittings-adapters
Pipes can be easily gas welded, but, nevertheless, their installation is more difficult than installing a pipeline of other materials. In addition, it is not always possible to apply welding and not in all rooms.
Steel components and parts are ordered in specialized workshops and shops. To connect the pipes they are threaded:
- in half an inch, if a Dy= 15 mm;
- three-quarters of an inch at Dy= 20 mm;
- one inch, if a Dy= 25 mm.
They are called half-inch pipes, respectively, three-quarters of an inch and inch.
The main drawbacks of the steel pipeline - weak anti-corrosion properties, a high degree of clogging. It must be periodically cleaned of the resulting plaque, otherwise it loses its capacity. At the same time, alkaline agents that corrode metal cannot be used, and pipes eventually start leaking.
Purified water passing through the old water supply networks, gets to the consumer "enriched" with harmful chemicals and microorganisms
Option # 2 - copper pipes
Copper piping is less susceptible to negative factors affecting strength, service life. It does not give in to corrosion, does not form a raid, is not deformed because of change of temperature condition.
When interacting with chlorine compounds that are contained in the water of the centralized water supply system, it does not form harmful compounds.
Copper pipes work well - they can be easily bent or joined using gas welding or high-temperature soldering.
If to compare copper pipeline with other types of pipes for water supply, it can be noted its extremely high cost. This is perhaps his biggest drawback.
But then it serves more than 70 years. It is often used if it is impossible to carry out the hidden installation of the water supply system, and the aesthetics of the room must be preserved.
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Copper pipelines are traditionally connected by soldering, which is used in all versions of the assembly. systems, including the heating part of solar collectors, in which the temperature can reach + 250º С
The second method of forming a permanent connection of copper pipes is performed using press fittings. Collet fittings are used to create detachable connections.
Direct connection of copper pipes with galvanized and non-galvanized steel pipes is unacceptable. In order to prevent galvanic corrosion, in case of unavoidable proximity between copper and steel pipes, a transition fitting should be installed.
The life of copper pipelines is practically unlimited. Even the water that freezes inside the pipes cannot damage the pipe, it will just stretch a little. The only negative is the high price.
The traditional method of connecting copper pipes
Assembly of water supply using press fittings
Copper with other metals
Durable and expensive system
Option # 3 - plastic pipes
The choice of plastic pipes is made according to their purpose, the working conditions — the temperature of the water used, the maximum working pressure, etc. With all the similarity of the material for production, the properties of different types of products can vary greatly.
Due to its many positive characteristics, plastic pipes are often used in the design and construction of pipelines. It is primarily characterized by high corrosion resistance.
Unlike metal products, they do not require a special protective coating, they have a smaller mass, which simplifies and facilitates the process of installation and transportation. The inherent flexibility allows them to reduce the number of bent inserts, connecting elements.
Pipes from plastic have a plain smooth surface and, thanks to it, differ in the small hydraulic resistance, the increased capacity (do not litter). They are not subject to corrosion, differ in low heat conductivity that excludes formation of condensate.
The expected life of the plastic pipeline is 50 years. But it must be remembered that the manufacturer indicates the time for the product to work at a certain and stable temperature conditions.
Among the shortcomings - they are easily damaged, exposed to the negative effects of negative temperatures, becoming fragile. It is strongly recommended not to install at negative temperatures. They can not be used for the device wiring, passing near open sources of fire and in places of direct solar radiation.
The temperature of the water transferred through the pipeline, which differs from the standard indicators, also has a negative impact on the service life of the products. Besides, plastic pipes during storage, transportation and operation must be protected from sunlight and mechanical damage.
The problem of linear expansion inherent in plastic pipes is solved with the help of special compensators that bend when heated and cooled.
Plastic piping is a general characteristic of products made from plastic. This includes products made of polyethylene, polypropylene, unplasticized polyvinyl chloride.
Polyethylene (PE) pipeline serves for the supply of cold drinking water with a temperature of 0 ° C to 40 ° C, with a maximum working pressure not exceeding 25 bar (the exact value depends on the size pipes). Installation of elements is carried out by welding.
Polypropylene pipes (PP) include several types of products that may differ slightly in the composition of the raw materials for production and are referred to as PPH, PPR and PPB. Used to transport household and drinking water (except those used for fire safety networks).
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Due to priority characteristics polymer pipes are gradually pushing steel and copper products out of the market.
From polymer pipes without problems, you can assemble a water supply system of any complexity. In the range of PP products there are products for cold and hot water.
The assembly of water supply circuits from polypropylene pipes is carried out using diffuse welding. Cooked once and for all. Transition fittings are used to connect valves
The color of the polypropylene pipe says nothing. Products with equal characteristics can be white, beige, green, gray. Exception - black tubes, which are well tolerated by sunlight
Water supply system of polypropylene pipes
Assembling a complex multi-ring system
Polypropylene pipelines in the bathroom
White polypropylene pipes
Maintain a temperature of 70-80 ° C, have a reduced resistance to bending and shock loads. These properties are especially pronounced at sub-zero temperatures.
Pipes, depending on the class of operating conditions, can withstand pressures of 4, 6, 8 or 10 bar. Their connection is carried out with the help of welding, a special soldering iron butt or socket, as well as with the help of thermistor welding.
Pipes of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (NPVH) are suitable for transporting water for any purpose with a temperature of from 0 ° C to 45 ° C. Do not use this type of hot water product.
It can be used for external above-ground and internal cold water supply networks provided it is protected from sunlight and mechanical damage. The connection of parts is carried out with a socket using glue.
For each type of polymer pipe manufacturers produce parts with a specific configuration. Therefore, it is necessary to choose only the same type of pipes and assemblies.
Knots and details for installation of the plastic pipeline are made industrially. A wide choice of their configurations and sizes makes it easy to assemble the most complex plumbing systems.
During the acquisition, unwinding of coils or installation, ensure that the pipes were not flattened sections, fractures and strong bends. If such a site is found, it must be removed - it is not suitable for installation.
When buying products, they are examined for the absence of cracks, burrs, traces of flaking. Often these defects are due to improper storage or transportation.
Selectively measured wall thickness, outer diameter. Check the performance of valves and cranes. Shaped elements should be free from cracks, sharp edges, burrs. Rubber pads and cuffs should not have tears, shells.
The presence of defects in the form of exfoliating layers and bubbles on the surface indicates a poor quality of the product, a violation of the production technology
Each manufacturer of products for water supply should provide data on the properties of water that can transported by this type of pipe, the features of its use, including how to resist penetration into the air system. The material of manufacture of pipes should not affect the composition and quality of water.
Option # 4 - metal pipes
Pipes made of metal and plastic combine the characteristic properties of metal and plastic - strength, flexibility, non-susceptibility to corrosion, and the absence of plaque.
They are made of several layers of durable polyethylene, welded together "overlapped", and an interlayer of aluminum, which serves as a frame. The metal layer can be solid, perforated or spiral.
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Metal pipes are used in the construction of branches of hot and cold water. In the device lines of hot water should take into account thermal expansion
For the assembly of metal-plastic pipelines, two types of fittings are produced: for connecting by clamping and for connecting by crimping
The use of fittings greatly facilitates and accelerates the process of assembling water supply. An inexperienced performer can handle the job.
Metal pipes are easily bent and retain their shape after bending. This property allows to reduce the length of the pipeline and the number of corner fittings
Pipes for cold and hot water supply
Variants of fittings and types of connections
Operational simple assembly of water supply
Radius of a bend of metalplastic pipes
The core of the pipe is an internal polyethylene layer. It performs a carrier function, gives strength, due to the smooth surface eliminates the formation of scale and layers.
The inner aluminum layer of the foil prevents the penetration of oxygen into the water supply system and stabilizes the linear expansion. The outer plastic layer serves as protection for the inner layers.
The expansion coefficients for metal and plastic are different, and constant temperature fluctuations over time lead to a weakening of the joints, leaks. This feature is taken into account when assembling the pipes and preventing them from stretching, and providing bending loops at the bend points.
This type of product is designed for the installation of plumbing and heating systems. Withstand pressure up to 16 bar and temperature up to +90 ° C. Can be used to transport both hot and cold water, suitable for cooking and household needs. The service life of a metal-plastic plumbing is 20-50 years, the real life depends on the quality of installation and operating conditions.
Supplied metal pipes in coils, complete with special fittings designed for their type. In contrast to steel pipes, there is no need for threading metal pipes; detachable and one-piece fittings.
Installation of the pipeline can be carried out without the use of welding equipment, which means that it can be installed where welding is prohibited
The pipe is afraid of multiple bends. To properly bend it, use a special spring - pipe bender
The joints between the segments and the reinforcement are the weak link of the system of metal-plastic. Connections must be tightened periodically, at least once every two years. But in general, experts speak well about the properties of plastic pipes and call them one of the most acceptable options in a relatively inexpensive price segment.
Conclusions and useful video on the topic
Differences of plastic pipes - polypropylene, polyethylene, metal-plastic:
How to choose a pipe for water. Professional tips:
When buying a pipe for a water supply system, the user most often has to choose the optimal ratio between the price available to him and acceptable quality. Often the choice is leaning towards the efficiency of the project. But even among cheaper offers, you need to carefully study the properties of the product and weigh all the arguments.
If doubts remain, the advice of an experienced specialist will help determine which pipes are best to choose for the plumbing, how to avoid common mistakes.
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