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Joshtoy is a hybrid of gooseberries and black currants, bred by a German amateur breeder in the 80s of the last century. If the garden grows yoshta, planting and care, reproduction and cultivation do not present difficulties for the owner of this amazing plant.
It is a long graceful shrub up to a height of 1.5 meters and a crown diameter of up to two meters. Its name came from two words of the German language: Johannisbeere and Stachelbeere, which means currant and gooseberry.
From the currant joshta got dark green openwork leaves, which are kept on the bushes until frost. From gooseberry inherited the shape and size of berries, which grow in the form of small clusters. On each brush there are from 3 to 5 berries.
Berries are large, dark purple, almost black, sourish taste, have the aroma of currant and gooseberry at the same time. From one bush you can get up to 5 kg of berries. Berries ripen unevenly, so the harvest can be collected from July until frost.
At the beginning of ripening the berries are firm and crunchy, when fully ripe they become succulent with the sweet and sour taste and aroma of muscat. Covered with very dense skin. The berries do not crumble, they are firmly attached to the pedicels.
The bush consists of 15-20 large strong shoots of different ages. The depth of the roots is up to 40 cm. In spring the plant is covered with beautiful bright flowers. Blooms in May, sometimes again in September.
In contrast, gooseberries do not have thorns, there is no strong flavor, characteristic of the currant. Growing and caring for yoshty does not present difficulties due to the unpretentiousness of the plant. Resistant to cold temperatures and pests. The beginning of fruiting is the second year after planting. The maximum yield is reached for 3-4 years.
The most popular varieties of yoshty: Triton, Odzhebin, Rudkis, Titania, Black Silverguters, from Russian varieties - a hybrid Zvyagintseva.
Has healing properties. They are used for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, for improving blood circulation, removing radioactive substances and heavy metals. Berries are rich in vitamins C, R, anthocyanins. Vitamin C is slightly lower than in the currant.
Resistant to diseases and pests, well tolerates the absence of sunlight, although it grows better and fructifies in well-lit sunny areas.
Reproduction of yoshty
After planting, reproduction and maintenance of yoshty require regularity and thoroughness, although much effort will not be required. You can propagate yoshtu by all methods known in gardening:
- Autumn cuttings. The most popular way. Young bark-covered shoots of this year should be cut in autumn. These shoots cut into smaller cuttings length of 15-20 cm. On each such shoot leave 4-5 kidneys. Plant in the ground, leaving two kidneys on the surface.
- Summer cuttings. Green branches cut into cuttings up to 15 cm long. Remove all the leaves except the top two ones. On the shoots, make a longitudinal incision above each kidney. Plant under a film at a slight angle, periodically loosen and water.
Care for yoshty, planting with propagation cuttings do not require special efforts, this method is common even among inexperienced gardeners. Therefore, cuttings can be considered the most preferable way of reproduction of this plant.
- Fission of bushes. Produced in spring or autumn. It is necessary to trim the overgrown roots, divide the bush into several parts, process the places of the cuts with a garden bar and plant each part of the bush in a new place.
- Seeds. This method is rarely used, usually if you want to get a new variety of yoshty. Seeds are mixed with moist, pre-steamed sand, then placed in a cool place. It is necessary to periodically moisten the sand.
- Layers. Dug up the soil around the bush, pour it abundantly, make grooves in the ground from the center of the bush in different directions, then bend the outer young shoots to the ground, fix it with brackets and sprinkle with earth. Independent rooted bushes transplanted in a year.
If the seeds germinate before the spring, then they should be planted in the pots on the windowsill or snowball before spring. In spring, the seedlings are tempered and planted in the soil.
Joshta: planting and care
Yoshtu is grown in separate bushes or in stems. Among gardeners, there is an opinion that the yoshta develops well and fructifies only in the neighborhood with gooseberries and black currants, so it is often vaccinated for gooseberry or golden currant or used as a stock of currant and gooseberries.
It is best to transplant yoshtu in the fall: in late September or early October. The bush should settle down before the beginning of autumn frosts, accumulate nutrients and build up the root system.
Planting yoshty in spring is less preferable for gardeners. In spring, the air temperature rises rapidly, this leads to the drying of the soil. A yoshta loves the moisture. When spring planting cuttings are well rooted by the fall and give the first harvest in the next year.
In one place the plant fructifies up to 18 years. Then it will be necessary to transplant to another place.
How to plant
For growing yoshty requires a sunny spacious place: over time, the bush is greatly expanded. Plant should be in a row at a distance, meter, between the rows it is recommended to leave 2 meters.
Often used for hedges. To do this, young shoots need to be planted at a close distance from each other. It is not recommended to place the plant in the center of the plot so as not to obscure other plantings.
Joshta is not afraid of winds and drafts. It grows poorly on sandy soils and peat bogs. Prefers loamy places.
It is necessary to know how to plant joshtu in the spring, because this will require special attention to the selection of seedlings. Planting material should be of good quality, with a powerful root system.
Remove all dry or rotten areas. Before planting place in water or a weak solution of potassium permanganate. The seedlings should be young, with a smooth, elastic bark and a powerful root system.
It is necessary to excavate a pit in the size of 50-60 cm, so that you can put the roots in a straightened state. To fill the pit, prepare the following mixture: take 2-3 grams of rotted compost 350 grams of lime, 80 g of superphosphate and a half-liter can of ash.
The yoshta is planted in the following order:
- In the pit, fill one third of the prepared mixture of compost and fertilizers.
- Pour a bucket of water.
- Place in the fossa a seedling with spread roots.
- Cover with the remaining mixture.
- Soil the ground slightly and pour.
- Cover with a thick layer of mulch.
Immediately before planting, each bush should be dipped in a mixture of water and soil, before digging in, you should achieve a close fit of the roots.
After planting, you must cut the stems, leave 2-3 kidneys on each.
When buying seedlings, one should pay attention not to the strength and height of shoots, but to the quality of the root system. It should be fresh and moist. The plant with dry and weather-beaten roots is worse.
The bark should be smooth and fresh. You can pinch a small piece of bark. If the green tissue of the plant is exposed, the seedling is fresh and alive. Such a plant quickly takes root and fructifies well.
If you can not immediately plant a seedling, then it can be buried in the shade. In the excavated hole put the plant in an inclined form, fill the ground with roots and half of the shoots. In this form can be stored for up to a month.
Yoshta: care and cultivation
Joshta is a moisture-loving shrub, therefore, to preserve moisture and nutrients, it is recommended to mulch the soil near the bush with compost. Norm - 2 buckets of pereprevshego compost per 1 bush.
The next important step is pruning. Joshta does not require special pruning to form a bush: cut only dried or frozen shoots. In the spring, sanitary pruning is carried out.
Joshta requires constant feeding: in summer 5 kg of organic fertilizer is added with addition of 30 g of superphosphate per 1 m2. In autumn, add 20 g of calcium sulphide to this mixture.
In the beginning of summer it is necessary to pour Mullein solution bird litter: 0 or apply any mineral fertilizer, for example, Agrolife. Since the 4th year, the fertilizer dose should be doubled. In autumn, pour a half-liter can of a solution of wood ash under each bush.
Resistant to pests and diseases that affect the currant and gooseberries: anthracnose, powdery mildew.
Despite her relative youth, she managed to get fond of many Russian gardeners. Extraordinarily beautiful appearance, tasty and healing berries, unpretentiousness and endurance make this berry bush attractive for many people.