Walnut - a valuable crop, massively grown in Central Asia and Ukraine, in southern Russia, in the MallDove and on the territory of Belarus. Even during the Soviet era, numerous varieties of walnut with high yields, excellent frost resistance, and an unsightly character were well-established and proved themselves. Today, breeders from different countries continue this work, so the range of varieties that are interesting for gardeners has expanded significantly.
Walnut Ideal, photo and description
Among the Russian walnut varieties there are many worthy, but only Ideal was able to conquer the gardens of the Black Soil Zone, the Middle and Lower Volga regions, and even some areas of the Non-Black Earth Region. The reason for this popularity is the excellent resistance to cold, the compactness of the crown, which does not grow above 5 meters, as well as the quick return of the crop. As seen in the photo, Walnut Ideal begins to bear fruit in the first or second year after planting the seedling in the ground.
Walnut Ideal tolerates frosts up to 30–35 ° C.Winter is well tolerated not only bark and perennial wood, but also the shoots of the past year.
If cooling and can cause damage to this variety, then in the spring during the return frosts. In this case, the situation is saved by prolonged re-flowering, compensating for the loss of flower buds that have opened in May.
Harvested in a brush, flat oval nuts weighing 10–12 grams are harvested from mid-September. A large core is more than half the weight. The shell of this walnut variety is thin, easily detachable from the kernel.
Another popular variety among Russian gardeners is the Walnut Giant, named for truly large fruits, whose weight can reach 35 grams. By yield, this crop is close to the previous variety. The trees are also quite compact, and their sprawling crown in height does not exceed 5-7 meters.
The variety Velikan is resistant to common walnut diseases, is not afraid of the harsh Russian winters and bears excellent fruits with moderate moisture and nutritious soil.
Walnut To get a crop of nuts to the middle-line gardeners is hampered by the long growing season of the plant and its fear of cold weather.
Thanks to the work of breeders, varieties appeared that solve both of these problems. These early ripe, unpretentious varieties include the Walnut Graceful, whose excellent quality and sweetish taste the fruits are ready to be harvested in mid-September. At the same time trees:
- are not afraid of drought and common diseases;
- is rarely affected by pests;
- is a well-leafed crown up to 5 meters high, easily maintained in a private garden.
However, at high yields, which reach 20 kg per tree, plants do not survive the frosts, during which kidneys are affected, skeletal branches and the trunk are affected.
Trees of this variety grow up to 6 meters in height, unpretentious to the growing conditions and spend a good winter even in harsh conditions. Walnut Yield got its name due to excellent fertility. Since the fourth year of life, plants are able to produce from 10 kg of selected nuts weighing more than 10 grams. Their collection begins in mid-September and, depending on the region of landing, ends towards the end of October.
Aurora Walnut Variety
Among the frost and disease-resistant early ripening varieties, walnut Aurora is a particular focus of gardeners. Unlike Ideal or Giant, these trees are much more powerful and taller. The first ovaries on plants appear at the age of four, and as they mature, plantings yield greater yields of better quality. On average, the nut mass reaches 12 grams, the core with a good table taste is more than 50% of the mass.
Walnut variety Zarya Vostoka
Another short growing walnut, quickly entering fruiting years, forms a crown with a height of 3-4 meters. Although the Zarya Vostoka variety of nuts cannot be called large, their weight is 9–10 grams, the culture pleases with crops up to 25 kg per tree.
Slightly less, about 20 kg of walnut provides grade breeder. For a culture oriented to the southern regions, a stable, annual fruiting with a predominantly top-lying arrangement of the ovaries is characteristic. Despite resistance to diseases and pests, plants do not tolerate frosts. After a harsh winter, not only the kidneys are affected, but also perennial wood, bark of skeletal branches and trunk.
Tall Walnut Varieties for Pollination, Grafting, and Gardening
Since most walnut varieties are fully or partially self-sterile, they need pollinators.
As such plants, breeders offer varieties:
- Spectrum with high-hardy trees up to 14 meters and heavily ribbed large nuts;
- Orion, also reaching 16 meters in height and giving 11 grams of egg-shaped nuts with light-colored shells;
- Marion, equally tall and powerful, giving 12 grams of nuts with a thick shell.
These varieties of walnut are often used not only as pollinators, but also as strong rootstock, as well as, thanks to a powerful, perfectly leafy crown, for landscaping.
Ukrainian and Belarusian walnut varieties
In the south of Russia and Ukraine, varieties of Ukrainian selection are cultivated. Such varieties include:
- Bukovinsky 1 and 2;
- Bukovina Bomb;
- Transnistria and even more than a dozen interesting crop varieties with medium or large nuts.
Recently, scientists of Belarus have been closely involved in the selection of walnut. The most famous of their varieties is the walnut Memory of Minov.
This variety, which underwent trials 15 years ago, belongs to the large-fruited. The ovary on powerful large trees is formed annually, mainly on the tops of the shoots. For the first time, fruiting from this variety should be expected 6 years after planting. Harvesting takes place in the second half of September.
The more the walnut is grown to the south, the taller varieties are used by gardeners. For example, in Moldavian gardens trees are not rare, reaching a height of 20-25 meters. But even these plants of local varieties are far from powerful black walnut native to North America, growing to 40 meters in height.
This culture is more and more interested in gardeners who know about the beneficial properties of the fruit of this tree and the decorative qualities of its wood. Despite the similarity of the appearance of walnut and black walnut - these are two different types, having different characteristics and agricultural techniques.