Pros and cons of infrared heater: operating principles, types and criteria for device selection.

Infrared heaterInfrared heaters are now becoming more popular. This is facilitated by - the reasonable price and high efficiency of the device. How do these devices, as well as their technical characteristics, as well as the advantages and disadvantages?

The operating principle of IR heater

The content of the article

  • The operating principle of IR heater
  • Pros and cons of infrared heater
  • Scope IR heaters
  • Types of infrared heaters
  • What are the criteria you need to consider when choosing a heater

Scheme heat distribution infrared heaterThe principle of operation of any heating device based on the transmission of heat from the hotter body to a less heated. The greater the temperature difference between the body and the environment, the more intense heat exchange occurs.

There are three types of heat transfer:

  • thermal conductivity;
  • convection;
  • radiation.

In fact, any heating device gives energy to all of the above ways, the only difference is the percentage ratio between the two.

Traditional heating devices (oil heaters, radiators) provide the bulk transfer of heat flux due to convection. Heat the device heats the air in contact with it a layer which becomes lighter and rises, releasing their place heavy cold air, creating a natural circulation room. Thus, there is a heating of the surrounding objects not directly but by means of heated air masses. In this case, the ceiling temperature is always a few degrees higher than on the floor of the room.

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Infrared heaters provide the basic heat transfer due to radiation of infrared waves. Radiated wave is easily absorbed by the air and are solid surfaces directly heating them. In simple words, the IR heater - a small artificial sun in your home. Unhindered spreading in space and on the surface and getting people in the room, infrared heat them and have these surfaces themselves are beginning to operate as a heat source.

With this method, energy transfer is eliminated extra link - air, which significantly increase energy efficiency and provide a more uniform heat distribution in the room.

REFERENCE! Infrared heaters are considered, due to the transmission of more than 70% of the radiation energy.

Pros and cons of infrared heater

To answer the question whether you need an infrared heater, you need to know all the advantages and disadvantages of this type of devices. The advantages of the IR heating system are:

  • ease of installation and no need for maintenance;Advantages infrared heater
  • rapid heating of premises of any area, you will feel the pleasant warmth immediately after turning on the device;
  • ability to create multiple zones of heat within the same premises;
  • efficiency compared to traditional types of heaters;
  • quiet operation due to the absence of moving elements;
  • oxygen not burned and not allocated odors;
  • high fire safety (in compliance with the rules of operation), can be applied in wooden houses;
  • the use in wet areas.

Infrared heaters are not without some drawbacks:

  • higher cost, compared with traditional models;
  • detrimental effect on furniture and home furnishings (interior and picture-resident range of the short-wave infrared radiation loses moisture, as a result they may appear cracks);
  • the possibility of harm to human health by the improper operation.

Scope IR heaters

Contrary to popular belief, infrared heaters are used not only in residential and office buildings. Depending on the infrared device structures are used in areas such as:

  • agriculture, for heating greenhouses with young / farm animals and birds;
  • production for the main or the local heating in the workshops, hangars, garages;
  • services, for the heating of outdoor cafes and restaurants;
  • medicine, for disinfection of premises;
  • industry, production of infrared saunas and heating furniture.

Industrial and household heaters - a completely different device, they differ both in the type of heating element (wavelength IR radiation) and by type of energy source used

Types of infrared heaters

There are many types of infrared heaters. Essentially, the surface is heated above 60 ° C - is intensively emits infrared waves. When this wavelength is inversely proportional to the surface temperature. Infrared called radiation with a wavelength of 0.74 micrometers to 1 millimeter. This range is between the end of the red color of the visible spectrum and the invisible part of the microwave radiation.

IR devices can be classified according to several criteria. According to the energy source:

  • power (To generate IR radiation, the heating element may be heated up to 900 degrees, usually designed for the area to 25 square meters);
  • gas (Effective for heating a large area - hangars, gymnasiums, greenhouses).

According to the type of heating element:

  1. tube (Got its name because of the bright golden glow at work. The heating element is a filament of tungsten or nickel-chromium alloy, placed into a quartz tube which is evacuated of air. Due to the high temperature emits short-wave radiation harmful to human health, it is not recommended for premises).Types of infrared heaters
  2. carbon (Similar in construction to the lamp unit, the only difference in the material of the heating element - they use a carboxylic or carbonic spiral, having at the heating temperature, whereby data heaters emit longer wavelengths safe for human heating, it becomes softer and comfortable).
  3. ceramic (A ceramic plate serves as a large-area emitting, infrared wave element. Heating of the panel to a temperature of about 60 ° C, is performed mounted metal spiral. The emitted IR spectrum mild, safe and comfortable for the person, and high performance ceramics, allow the use of these devices in schools and humid environments).
  4. Micatermic (Like on the device and the emission spectrum in the ceramic. Radiating element is a plate coated with metal oxides and sheath of mica provides heating filament of a nickel-chromium alloy. The main difference from the ceramic heaters is the lower heat capacity of the heating element and as a consequence a higher infrared effect).
  5. Foil (Most modern sources of long-wave infrared radiation. They represent a film thickness of not more than one millimeter. Film heaters can be placed under the interior trim on the walls, floor or ceiling. They are an excellent source of distributed soft-infrared radiation).

Divided heaters and wavelength:

  • shortwave (Intended for residential premises heating, infrared radiation with a wavelength of 0.74... 1.5 microns, characteristic of radiating elements at a temperature of from 600 to 1000) ° C;
  • longwave (Softer provide heating for premises intended inherent radiating elements with temperature up to 120 ° C).

The most widely used at the moment to get an electric infrared heaters based Micatermic panels, tube and carbon-emitting elements.

What are the criteria you need to consider when choosing a heater

To acquired infrared heater, to fully realize their strengths, it is important not to be mistaken with a choice of the type of device. Before selecting an infrared heater, you need to clearly define the purpose for which you plan to use it. Experts recommend the following principles:

  • use low-temperature panel to additional heating of residential rooms (ceramic or Micatermic);
  • as the primary source of heat in offices use devices with a surface temperature above 120 ° C based on carbon elements;
  • for heating large areas to use high-temperature electric or gas heaters, located on the recommended manufacturer distance from people.

It should carefully examine all the possibilities and make the right choice of devices that bring radiant heat in the house.

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