The content of the article:
After the harvest of the currant is collected, the bushes need to be processed in time in order to get a good number of large and juicy berries next year. Cropping the currant after harvesting allows the plant to form properly and not "hurt." The enemies of the untreated currant are powdery mildew and insect pests. To reduce the risk of infection, excess and old branches are carefully removed.
Preparation of the tool and processing methods
Correct trimming currants - the guarantee of a perfect harvest!
It must be remembered that cutting branches is a strong stress for the currant, so this process needs to be approached with special care. Crop usually has many branches, so the result is directly dependent on the state of the tool that you have to use. A saw-saw or a pruner must be well ground to make the cuts neat and small.
When is it better to trim the currant? For this important event, it is better to choose a sunny and dry day in late October, early November.
It is not recommended to break branches of a plant - currant longly heals such "wounds".
The process is simplified if the shrub is young and not yet fruited. In this case it is necessary to cut off only unnecessary radical shoots. For a harmonious formation of a bush, three or four shoots are sufficient.
If the age of the bush is more than 4 years, then every autumn dry and sick shoots, in which the plant no longer needs, are carefully removed, but only gives them their vital juices and strength. The sense of these branches will no longer be - they will no longer bear fruit. And for insects they become a favorite habitat, because of which the bush of the currant gradually falls ill all.
How to distinguish sick currant branches from healthy?
Before you start processing the plant, you need to carefully inspect all branches. The color of the bark in young and old shoots is very different. Young are covered with a light bark of a greenish shade, and the old ones are brown with a grayish coating. Branchlets with weak growths, weakly developed kidneys, visible traces of the defeat of various diseases - the plant is no longer needed, and they must be removed in order to preserve the bush in an excellent condition. Currant trim will help the plant stay healthy.
But if the branch is still strong, and the flower buds on it are healthy and large, it can be left on the bush for several more years. It happens that young, healthy-looking twigs also do not bear fruit from year to year. They also have to be removed.
Which branches are urgently removed?
How to cut the currant? Without any hesitation, it is possible to cut down the lower branches from the currant bush, which bend down to the ground under the weight of berries. Such fruits are still not suitable for consumption, because they quickly rot, touching the ground, and are often covered with mud.
Shoots that disrupt normal growth of shrubs, too, must be removed. Curves that grow in the wrong direction of the branch, only prevent the currant from developing normally. They come into contact with other shoots and during bad weather conditions they easily drop berries from a bush, rip off a tender bark from young twigs. It's like pulling a piece of leather. Open wounds are tasty for insects, and any infection unhindered affects the plant.
Removal of leaves and top dressing of currants
After pruning black currant in autumn, all the leaves on the bushes must be cut off. Why do you need to do this? The fact is that yellowing, rotting leaves become a good nutrient medium for pests.
The ground near the bush is slightly loosened and mixed with fertilizer: 1 bucket of manure per 1 bush. It is possible to feed the plant with a carbamide solution, in which a small amount of ash is added.
How does a processed currant bush look?
Usually the pruning of shrubs is completed by the fifth year of his life. When the autumn trimming of the currant is completed, the "skeleton" of the formed shrub should be 10-15 main branches. This is both young and old shoots. A healthy bush should have a strong and wide base, due to which sunlight falls on all branches. This plant is covered with buds, and then with berries from the middle of the bush. If the currant is not processed - the berries are small and ripen only at the last shoots, and in the center of the shrub they may not be.
Features of processing
Autumn pruning of currants occurs in several stages:
- When pruning it is important to leave 3-4 shoots, which bear fruit well in this season. After several years, the shrub will be up to 20 branches of different ages.
- When the plant reaches the age of 7-8 years, the shoots that appeared in the first year of life should be removed. Weak, diseased, broken, branches growing in the wrong direction are also desirable to be cut off. A fully formed shrub will consist of 20-25 branches, the age of which varies from 1 year to 8 years.
It is not recommended to leave hemp after cutting, as they quickly become the habitat of numerous insects.
Spring cropping of currant
When is it better to cut a currant: in spring or in autumn? In addition to the autumn pruning, amateur gardeners can also carry out spring processing of the plant. This procedure should be started after the period of frosts has ended and a thaw will begin. But it is important not to miss the period in which the plant has not yet begun to form the kidneys and is in a "dormant" state.
How is this process carried out?
- Branches are shortened by one quarter along the edges so that the bush resembles a bowl.
- The crown needs to be thinned, eliminating unnecessary thickets, preventing normal illumination and taking energy plants.
- At the first spring pruning of a young bush, it is recommended to leave 10 strong shoots.
- In the following seasons, one third of the old shoots are removed from the bush.
- Spring pruning is desirable to be done annually, and at least 1 time in 2 years.
Many inexperienced gardeners, not knowing the rules for caring for the currant, prefer not to cut off old shoots at all, believing that the forces of nature will correct everything themselves, and the currant will always bear fruit beautifully. But this is not so. Simple recommendations will help to save the plant and receive annually a large number of tasty and healthy berries.