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The extensive family of Konstentsov includes many species of ferns with a common name - asplenium. Growing in both the tropical belt and the temperate climate of Europe and Asia, these plants can lead a terrestrial and rock life. There are epiphytes among the aspleniums.
As indoor decorative and deciduous plants, not the largest but most attractive and unusual aspleniums are grown. In this case, the good growth of the fern and its beauty directly depend on the care and conditions in which the plants are located.
In nature, ferns prefer to settle in places where they are guaranteed protection from the sun's rays, there is a bit loose substratum and moisture. It would seem that with such modest requirements in an apartment these plants should be absolutely comfortable. But sometimes the florists face a number of serious problems.
In asplenium yellow and die leaves, fern ceases to grow or brown spots appear on its vayas. What is the cause of deterioration of the flower, and how to treat asplenium?
Most of the diseases of ferns are associated with a violation of their conditions of detention or improperly organized care.
Asplenium ceased to grow: the causes and ways to solve the problem
So, how do you please the plants? Most often on the windowsills you can find several varieties of asplenium. Among the large rosette forms with whole or weakly divided foliage is:
- asplenium nidus, in a wildly occurring species found in the tropical zone of the planet;
- asplenium ancient, also living under the canopy of a dense thick forest in the tropics;
- scapeloprene asplenium, which is a European and American forest species.
Ferns from this family with a feathery and almost filiform foliage represent:
- asplenium bulbous;
- aspleusia viviparous.
Fans of indoor floriculture grow other types of ferns, but they are all extremely sensitive to lighting, temperature and humidity conditions. When caring for aspleniumom, in the photo, take into account that the plants are shade-loving and do not tolerate too bright light. The first reaction of the fern to the excess of the sun is the blanching of the leaves, and then to the undesirable exposure to sunlight, the plant responds with brown spots on the vayas, their gradual fading and withering away.
Equally sensitive to airplanes and dry air, especially noticeable in winter, when the premises are heated, as well as on hot summer days. Dry air causes that asplenium ceases to grow, its old leaves begin to wither, and new ones do not appear at all.
If a floriculturist faces such a situation, it is necessary to take all measures to humidify the air.
And here a good help in caring for aspleniumom will be:
- Irrigation of the above-ground part of the fern with warm water;
- use of household humidifier;
- installation of a pot with aspleniumom in a pallet with moistened gravel or fine expanded clay.
With the beginning of drying the tips of the leaves of asplenium treatment is to increase the humidity of the air to 60-65% and adjust the irrigation regime. It will soon be seen that the growth of the fern has resumed, and necrosis does not capture new tissues of vai.
In a room with low humidity, the plant will be comfortable only if the temperature does not rise above 22 ° C.
In summer, for shade-tolerant ferns, you need to choose a place where the average daily temperature was within 18-21 ° C, in winter the air can be 3-5 degrees cooler.
At the same time, at any time of the year, it is impossible to admit that the fern is in the cold. For tropical and pinnate leaves, the critical temperature is 10-12 ° C. Plunging into anabiosis, asplenium ceases to grow, the reason is that in this cold air the roots of the plant cease to absorb moisture. And with a long stay in a cold wet ground fern rhinoceros inevitably rot. It does not do good and spray foliage at low temperature.
Errors in the care, watering and top dressing of asplenium
Therefore, in addition to maintaining a comfortable air temperature and its humidity, the fern needs regular, but not excessive watering.
Dry air, a violation of the temperature regime and illiterate watering are not the only reasons why the leaves grow pale or brown on the asplenium.
Often spots on the fern vayas are a sign of improper use of fertilizing, as well as attacks of insects that cause weakening, and sometimes the death of the fern.
It is impossible to allow the substrate to dry up, but the excess moisture of the soil is no less dangerous. Irrigation is combined with top dressing, which in summer is carried out 10-14 days later.
Leaving the fern without watering, the florist risks that, due to lack of moisture, the leaves of the asplenium will turn yellow and die. In this case, do not hesitate, because even with a complete loss of the aboveground part, there remains a viable rhizome. If in time to take measures to resuscitate asplenium, the fern can still be saved.
Remove all yellowed or withered leaves from the rosette, bring the rhizome to fresh soil and gently water and sprinkle the fern. The surviving sleeping rudiments of leaves wake up within 10-15 days, as evidenced by the appearance first brown, and then the green kidney in the middle of the rosette.
As a substrate for asplenium it is possible to take:
- ready ground for ferns, after adding a little vermiculite and ground charcoal,
- soil for orchids and epiphytes, mixed with a small amount of nutrient soil and vermiculite;
- homemade mixture of peat, leaf land and humus with the addition of pieces of charcoal, perlite and chopped sphagnum.
During transplantation, it is necessary to carefully inspect the roots of the asplenium, and if it is found dry or rotten, be sure to remove. The healthy rhizomes are brownish, dense, covered with scales. An indication of the disease can be considered the blackening of the tissue of the rhizome and its dilution.
To ensure that the cutting sites are not rotten, they are treated with ground cinnamon, which has mild bactericidal properties or powder from charcoal.
Diseases of asplenium and pests in photos and descriptions
Ferns at home rarely suffer from any diseases, but neglecting the necessary depicted in the photo of asplenium care, you can face infections of the bacterial and fungal character.
The most common diseases of asplenium are root and stem rot, which is possible when the rules are violated watering, as well as bacterioses of the leaves, as a result of which the vayas lose their juiciness and strength, and then quickly perish.
Violation of care for the plant leads, as in the photo, to diseases of asplenium associated with the propagation of harmful fungi of the species Phyllosticta.
Externally, the disease manifests itself in the form of oval or shapeless, rapidly expanding spots on the leaf plates. First, the leaf tissue acquires a yellow shade, then it becomes brown and dies, leaving holes on the leaf plates. So the disease looks like an asplenium nest-shaped, on the pinnate crown of other species the leaves turn yellow and die, very quickly leading to a complete loss of the plant. In this case, you can recognize the disease by a dark patch on the back of the affected leaf and the rapid destruction of the withered tissue.
From fungal infections can get rid of:
- cutting off all affected parts of the plant;
- several times having treated the crown and soil with a fungicide.
As a preventive measure for such diseases, all dry leaves must be removed and watering and care of the asplenium should be established, as in the photo.
If the leaves pale, starting with the central vein, and dry up even with proper care of the plant, fern lovers should think about the defeat of the pet leaf nematode, caught in the plant from of the soil. Unfortunately, such an asplenium can hardly be helped, so it's better to leave the fern, but the soil and the pot should be carefully steamed.
The remaining pests, in the photo, asplenium, like illness, can be defeated. Among the insects that attack ferns, one can name a scab, a mealybug and a fern aphid.
If the plant is constantly kept in moist soil, it is possible to avoid the appearance of fungal mosquitoes and thrips. Treatment of asplenium from such pests necessarily includes insecticide treatment, elimination of the cause that made it possible to weaken the plant and establish care.